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Handbook of Aerospace Electromagnetic Compatibility

Handbook of Aerospace Electromagnetic Compatibility

Dr. Reinaldo J. Perez (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-08288-0 December 2018 Wiley-IEEE Press 768 Pages

Description

A comprehensive resource that explores electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) for aerospace systems

Handbook of Aerospace Electromagnetic Compatibility is a groundbreaking book on EMC for aerospace systems that addresses both aircraft and space vehicles. With contributions from an international panel of aerospace EMC experts, this important text deals with the testing of spacecraft components and subsystems, analysis of crosstalk and field coupling, aircraft communication systems, and much more. The text also includes information on lightning effects and testing, as well as guidance on design principles and techniques for lightning protection.

The book offers an introduction to E3 models and techniques in aerospace systems and explores EMP effects on and technology for aerospace systems. Filled with the most up-to-date information, illustrative examples, descriptive figures, and helpful scenarios, Handbook of Aerospace Electromagnetic Compatibility is designed to be a practical information source. This vital guide to electromagnetic compatibility:

•    Provides information on a range of topics including grounding, coupling, test procedures, standards, and requirements

•    Offers discussions on standards for aerospace applications

•    Addresses aerospace EMC through the use of testing and theoretical approaches

Written for EMC engineers and practitioners, Handbook of Aerospace Electromagnetic Compatibility is a critical text for understanding EMC for aerospace systems.

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xii

List of Contributors xiii

In Memoriam xiv

1 Introduction to E3 Models and Techniques in Aerospace Systems 1
Ira Kohlberg

1.1 Introduction and Topics of Interest 1

1.2 Autonomous Systems 8

1.3 Coupled Air and Space Survivable Systems 30

1.4 EMC Considerations of Chaos 41

1.5 EMC Effects on and Technology for Aerospace Systems 52

References 73

2 Deterministic and Statistical EMC Models for Field-to-Wire Coupling and Crosstalk in Wire Harness 79
Sergio Pignari

2.1 Introduction 79

2.2 DeterministicModeling 79

2.3 StatisticalModeling 99

References 115

3 HEMP Protection and Verification 121
William D. Prather

3.1 Introduction 121

3.2 High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse 122

3.3 HEMP Coupling to Aircraft 129

3.4 Shielding and Shielding Topology 133

3.5 EM Protection Technology 135

3.6 System-Level Specifications and Measurements 137

3.7 Hardening Component Specifications and Measurements 169

3.8 Hardness Maintenance/Hardness Surveillance 180

3.9 Conclusion 182

References 183

4 HIRF and Lightning Effects and Testing 187
Martin Gabrisak

4.1 Introduction 187

4.2 Coupling Analysis 190

4.3 HIRF Electromagnetic Environment and Its Effects 249

4.4 Electromagnetic Effects of Lightning 280

4.5 Precipitation Static (P-Static) 321

4.6 Lightning Effects and Protection in Aerospace 330

References 340

5 Techniques to Design Robust Lightning Protection Circuits for Avionics Equipment 347
Dr. ClayMcCreary

5.1 Introduction 347

5.2 Clean Sheet Design 347

5.3 Evaluating and Hardening Existing Protection 368

5.4 Design Examples 372

5.5 Conclusion 378

References 378

6 Pyrotechnic Systems in Aerospace Applications 381
Karen Burnham

6.1 Introduction 381

6.2 Component-Level Concerns 383

6.3 Vehicle-Level Concerns 390

6.4 Conclusion 404

References 404

7 Assembly-Level EMC Testing of Space Components/Subsystems 407
Leslie R.Warboys

7.1 Preliminary Steps 407

7.2 Basic Testing Concepts 408

7.3 Commonly Performed Tests 409

7.4 Test Plan 410

7.5 Testing Sequence 414

References 444

8 System-Level Testing of Spacecraft 445
JohannesWolf

8.1 Classification of System-Level Testing 445

8.2 System-Level Requirements Definition 452

8.3 Test Execution at the System Level 461

References 479

9 Subsystem EMC for Aircraft 483
Paul Kay

9.1 Introduction: The Aim of Subsystem-Level Testing 483

9.2 Motivations for Testing: Safety of Flight and Success of Mission 486

9.3 Emissions Tests 492

9.4 Immunity Tests 511

9.5 Test Plans for Avionics Subsystems 524

Further Reading 535

10 EMI Effects in Flight Control Systems and Their Mitigations 537
IrfanMajid

10.1 Introduction 538

10.2 Nature of EMI Experienced by Aerospace Vehicles 540

10.3 Reported Catastrophic EMI Occurrences in FCS 545

10.4 Anatomy of FBWFCS 548

10.5 Flight Management System 554

10.6 EMC Test Standards 556

10.7 EMC Test Methodologies of FCS 566

10.8 How EMI Couples to FCS 580

10.9 Modeling and Simulation 586

10.10 FCS of UAVs 590

10.11 Some Special Considerations for EMI Mitigation 593

References 598

11 EMC Considerations for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 603
Paul Kay

11.1 Introduction 603

11.2 Small UAVs 605

11.3 Payloads 610

11.4 Small UAV Navigation and Control Systems 616

11.5 Electromagnetic Environment for Small UAVs 617

12 DC Magnetic Cleanliness Description for Spaceflight Programs 621
Pablo S. Narvaez

12.1 Magnetic Cleanliness Introduction 621

12.2 Magnetic Cleanliness and Control Philosophy 622

12.3 Magnetics Cleanliness Program Description 623

12.4 Early Magnetic Cleanliness Involvement 626

12.5 Design Requirements and Practices 629

12.6 Magnetic Assessment and Control 632

12.7 Magnetic Control Design Practices 639

12.8 Test FacilitiesMeasurement and Methods 653

12.9 Analytical Determination of Magnetic Fields 671

13 Spacecraft Charging 673
Robert C. Scully

13.1 Introduction 673

13.2 Historical Background 676

13.3 General Description of the Near-Earth Electromagnetic Environment 677

13.4 Introduction to Spacecraft Charging 689

13.5 Types of Spacecraft Charging 695

13.6 Potential Damage 697

13.7 Ways and Means of Protection/Mitigation 699

13.8 Concluding Material 701

References 701

Bibliography 703

14 Analysis and Simulations of Space Radiation-Induced Single-Event Effects and Transients 705
Reinaldo J. Perez

14.1 Introduction 705

14.2 The Space Radiation Environment 706

14.3 Single-Event Effects 706

14.4 Single-Event Transient 708

14.5 Generation and Modeling a SET 710

14.6 Use of Upset Rates for Analyzing Vulnerabilities of Designs to SEE 713

14.7 Circuit Modeling of SETs 716

14.8 SETs in Digital Devices 718

14.9 SET-Induced Clock Jitter and False Clock Pulse 722

14.10 Designing Digital Circuits for SET Survivability 723

14.11 Crosstalk Noise from SET Events and Delay Effects 726

14.12 SET in Voltage Regulators 729

14.13 SET Propagation through Multiple Circuits 731

14.14 SET Hardening of Interconnects 733

14.15 Modeling Subsystem- and System-Level Effects from SET 733

14.16 Analyses and Protection for SET for Electronic Devices 737

14.17 SEE Testing of Spacecraft Hardware Electronics 741

14.18 Conclusions 743

References 744

Index 749