About the Author
Raymond S. Nickerson received a PhD in experimental psychology from Tufts University in 1965. He was a researcher and manager at Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. for 25 years and retired as a senior vice president; he is now a research professor at Tufts University. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Association (Divisions 1, 3, 21), the Association for Psychological Science, the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, the Society of Experimental Psychologists, and a recipient of the Franklin V. Taylor award from the APA’s Division of Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychology (1991). Dr Nickerson was founding editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied and of Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and is a past chair of the National Research Council’s Committee on Human Factors. He is the author of several books, the more recent of which are Looking Ahead: Human Factors Challenges in a Changing World (1992), Psychology and Environmental Change (2003), and Cognition and Chance: The Psychology of Probabilistic Reasoning (2004).
Susan Dumais is a Principal Researcher in the Adaptive Systems and Interaction Group at Microsoft Research. She has been at Microsoft Research since 1997 and has published widely in the areas of human–computer interaction and information retrieval. Her current research focuses on personal information management, user modeling and personalization, novel interfaces for interactive retrieval, and implicit measures of user interest and activity. She has worked closely with several Microsoft product groups on search-related innovations. Prior to joining Microsoft Research, she was at Bellcore and Bell Labs for many years, where she worked on Latent Semantic Indexing (a statistical method for concept-based retrieval), combining search and navigation, individual differences, and organizational impacts of new technology. Susan has published more than 170 articles in the fi elds of information science, human–computer interaction, and cognitive science, and holds several patents on novel retrieval algorithms and interfaces. She is Past-Chair of ACM’s Special Interest Group in Information Retrieval (SIGIR), and was elected to the CHI Academy in 2004. She serves on numerous government panels, editorial boards and conference organizing committees. Susan is an adjunct professor in the Information School at the University of Washington, and has been a visiting faculty member at Stevens Institute of Technology, New York University, and the University of Chicago.
Stephan Lewandowsky obtained his PhD from the University of Toronto in 1985 and has held academic posts at the University of Toronto, University of Oklahoma, and University of Western Australia since then. He has been a Professor of Psychology at the University of Western Australia since 2000. He has held posts as Visiting Professors at the University of Potsdam, Germany, and the University of Bristol, UK. He is currently serving on the editorial board of Psychological Review and is Associate Editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. His research seeks to synthesize basic scientifi c research in the context of potential application to everyday problems. His research has been funded by several agencies, including the US Federal Aviation Administration and the Australian Research Council. He has edited three books and has published 26 refereed articles since 2000 (with a lifetime total of over 90 publications).
Timothy Perfect graduated with his PhD in 1989 from the University of Manchester. From there he worked fi rst at the University of Liverpool and then the University of Bristol. He is currently Professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Plymouth, where he heads the Memory Research Group. His research interests are broadly in the area of the applied psychology of memory, and he has published on topics of eyewitness confi dence, face recognition, retrieval induced forgetting, unconscious plagiarism and cognitive aging. His work has been funded by several UK funding councils and charitable trusts: the Economic and Social Research Council, the Biotechnology and Biology Research Council, the Medical Research Council, The Leverhulme Trust, and The Nuffi eld Foundation. He is currently on the editorial board of the journals Applied Cognitive Psychology and Memory, and is a member of the Experimental Psychology Society, the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, and the Psychonomic Society. He is married (to Tara) and has two sons (Jake and Sam), and he harbours the ambition to score a century at cricket for his local team.