Skip to main content

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 7, Nanocomposites: Science and Fundamentals

E-Book

$220.99

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 7, Nanocomposites: Science and Fundamentals

Description

The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication.

This 7th volume Handbook is solely focused on Nanocomposites: Science and Fundamentals. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: preparation, characterization and applications of nano materials from renewable resources; hydrogels and its nanocomposites from renewable resources: preparation of chitin-based nanocomposite materials through gelation with ionic liquid; starch based bionanocomposites; biorenewable nanofiber and nanocrystal; investigation of wear characteristics of dental composite reinforced with rice husk derived nanosilica filler particles; performance of regenerated cellulose/vermiculite nanocomposites fabricated via ionic liquid; preparation, structure, properties and interactions of the PVA/cellulose composites; green composites with cellulose nano-reinforcements; biomass composites from bamboo-based micro/nano fibers; synthesis and medicinal properties of polycarbonates and resins from renewable sources; nanostructured polymer composites with modified carbon nanotubes; organic-inorganic nanocomposites derived from polysaccharides; natural polymer  based nanocomposites; cellulose whisker based green polymer composites; poly (lactic acid) nanocomposites reinforced with different additives; nanocrystalline cellulose; halloysite based bionanocomposites; nanostructurated composites based on biodegradable polymers and silver nanoparticles; starch-based biomaterials and nanocomposites; green nanocomposites based on PLA and natural organic fillers; chitin and chitosan based nanocomposites.

Preface xxi

1 Preparation, Characterization, and Applications of Nanomaterials (Cellulose, Lignin, and Silica) from Renewable (Lignocellulosic) Resources 1
K.G. Satyanarayana, Anupama Rangan, V.S. Prasad and Washington Luiz Esteves Magalhaes

1.1 Introduction 2

1.1.1 Cellulose and Nanocellulose 3

1.1.1.1 Types of Nanocellulose 5

1.1.2 Lignin and Nanolignin 7

1.1.3 Silica and Nanosilica 7

1.2 Preparation of Nanomaterials 10

1.2.1 Nanocellulose from Lignocellulosic Materials 10

1.2.1.1 Mechanical Shearing and Grinding 11

1.2.1.2 Steam Explosion/High-Pressure Homogenization 12

1.2.1.3 Chemical Methods (Acid Hydrolysis, Alkaline Treatment and Bleaching) 16

1.2.1.4 Ultrasonication 17

1.2.1.5 Other Methods 18

1.2.1.6 Functionalized Nanocellulose from Fibers 20

1.2.2 Nanolignin 21

1.2.2.1 Precipitation Method 22

1.2.2.2 Chemical Modification 22

1.2.2.3 Electro Spinning Followed by Surface Modification 22

1.2.2.4 Freeze Drying Followed by Thermal Stabilization and Carbonization 22

1.2.2.5 Supercritical Antisolvent Technology 23

1.2.2.6 Chemomechanical Methods 23

1.2.2.7 Nanolignin by Self-Assembly 23

1.2.2.8 Lignin Nanocontainers by Miniemulsion Method 23

1.2.2.9 Template-Mediated Synthesis 24

1.2.3 Nanosilica 25

1.2.3.1 Nanosilica Obtained from Plants 25

1.2.3.2 Enzymatic Crystallization of Amorphous Nanosilica 27

1.3 Characterization of Nanomaterials 27

1.3.1 Characterization of Nanocellulose 29

1.3.1.1 Structure and Morphology of NC 29

1.3.1.2 Physical Properties (Dimensions, Density, Electrical, Crystallinity, and Any Other) 33

1.3.1.3 Mechanical Properties 36

1.3.2 Characterization of Lignin Nanoparticles 37

1.3.2.1 Morphology of Lignin Nanoparticles 38

1.3.2.2 Thermal Analysis 39

1.3.3 Other Methods 39

1.3.4 Characterization of Nanosilica 39

1.4 Applications and Market Aspects 45

1.4.1 Nanocellulose 45

1.4.1.1 Biomedical Applications 46

1.4.1.2 Dielectric Materials 46

1.4.1.3 In Composite Manufacturing for Various Applications 46

1.4.1.4 Advanced Functional Materials 47

1.4.2 Nanolignin 49

1.4.3 Nanosilica 51

1.4.3.1 In Composites 51

1.4.3.2 Nanosilica in Nacre Composite 52

1.4.3.3 Encapsulation of Living Cells by Nanosilica 52

1.5 Concluding Remarks and Challenges Ahead 54

Acknowledgments 55

References 55

2 Hydrogels and its Nanocomposites from Renewable Resources: Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications 67
B. Manjula, A. Babul Reddy, T. Jayaramudu, E.R. Sadiku, S.J. Owonubi, Oluranti Agboola and Tauhami Mokrani

2.1 Introduction 67

2.2 Hydrogels from Renewable Resources 71

2.3 Hydrogel Technical Features 72

2.4 Nanocomposite Hydrogels 72

2.4.1 Polymer-Clay-Based Nanocomposite Hydrogels 75

2.4.2 Poly(ethylene Oxide)–Silicate Nanocomposite Hydrogels 76

2.4.3 Poly(acryl Amide) and Poly(vinyl Alcohol)–Silicate-Based Nanocomposite Hydrogels 77

2.5 Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Natural Polymers 79

2.6 Classifications of Hydrogels 80

2.7 Applications of Hydrogels as Biomaterials 82

2.7.1 Hydrogels for Drug Delivery Applications 82

2.7.2 Hydrogels for Tissue-Engineering Scaffolds 84

2.7.3 Hydrogels for Contact Lens 85

2.7.4 Hydrogels for Cell Encapsulation 85

2.7.5 Artificial Muscles and Nerve Regeneration 86

2.8 Conclusions 87

Acknowledgment 88

References 88

3 Preparation of Chitin-Based Nanocomposite Materials Through Gelation with Ionic Liquid 97
Kazuya Yamamoto and Jun-ichi Kadokawa

3.1 Introduction 98

3.2 Dissolution and Gelation of Chitin with Ionic Liquid 100

3.3 Fabrication of Self-Assembled Chitin Nanofibers by Regeneration from the Chitin Ion Gels 103

3.4 Preparation of Nanocomposite Materials from Chitin Nanofibers 104

3.5 Conclusion 114

References 115

4 Starch-Based Bionanocomposites 121
Abbas Dadkhah Tehrani, Masoumeh Parsamanesh and Ali Bodaghi

4.1 Introduction 121

4.2 Nanocomposites 122

4.3 Starch Structural Features 123

4.4 Starch-Based Bionanocomposites 124

4.4.1 Starch Silicate Nanocomposites 125

4.4.2 Starch/Chitosan Composites 126

4.4.3 Starch Cellulose Nanocomposites 128

4.4.4 Starch Nanocomposites with Other Nanofillers 129

4.5 Starch Nanocrystal, Nanoparticle, and Nanocolloid Preparation and Modification Methods 131

4.5.1 Starch Nanocrystals Preparation by Acid Hydrolysis Method 131

4.5.2 Starch Nanocrystal Modification Methods 133

4.5.2.1 Starch Nanocrystals Chemical Modification by Molecules with Low Molecular Weight 133

4.5.2.2 Modification of Starch Nanocrystals via Surface Grafting of Polymers 133

4.5.3 Starch Nanoparticle and Nanocolloid Preparation and Modification Methods 135

4.6 Nano Starch as Fillers in Other Nanocomposites 140

4.7 Biomedical Application 143

4.8 Conclusion 144

References 145

5 Biorenewable Nanofiber and Nanocrystal: Renewable Nanomaterials for Constructing Novel Nanocomposites 155
Linxin Zhong and Xinwen Peng

5.1 Nanocellulose-Based and Nanocellulose-Reinforced Nanocomposite Hydrogels 156

5.1.1 Gelling Performances of Nanocelluloses 157

5.1.2 Nanocelluloses-Reinforced Nanocomposite Hydrogels 159

5.2 Nanocellulose-Based Aerogels 166

5.2.1 Preparation and Properties of Nanocellulose Aerogels 166

5.2.2 Nanocellulose–Polymer Composite Aerogels 171

5.2.3 Nanocellulose–Inorganic Nanocomposite Aerogels 176

5.2.4 Nanocellulose–Nanocarbon Hybrid Aerogels 179

5.3 Nanocellulose-Based Biomimetic and Conductive Nanocomposite Films 183

5.3.1 Nanocellulose–Polymer Biomimetic Nanocomposite Films 183

5.3.2 Nanocellulose–Inorganic Biomimetic Nanocomposite Films 187

5.3.3 Nanocellulose–Nanocarbon Conductive Nanocomposite Films 190

5.4 Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal and its Nanocomposites with Unique Optical Properties 196

5.4.1 CNC Chiral Nematic Performances 196

5.4.2 CNC–Polymer Photonic Nanocomposites 199

5.4.3 CNC–Inorganic Photonic Nanocomposites 202

5.4.4 CNC-Templated Chiral Nematic Nanomaterials 204

5.5 Spun Fibers from Nanocelluloses 207

5.5.1 Spinning Performances of Nanocelluloses and Properties 207

5.5.2 Nanocellulose–Polymer Spinning Nanocomposite Fibers 210

5.5.3 Nanocellulose–Nanocarbons Spinning Nanocomposite Fibers 212

5.6 Summary and Outlook 213

References 215

6 Investigation of Wear Characteristics of Dental Composite Reinforced with Rice Husk–Derived Nanosilica Filler Particles 227
I.K. Bhat, Amar Patnaik and Shiv Ranjan Kumar

6.1 Introduction 227

6.2 Materials and Method 229

6.2.1 Synthesis of Nanosilica Powder 229

6.2.2 Materials and Fabrication Details 230

6.2.3 Determination of Hardness 230

6.2.4 Determination of Flexural Strength 231

6.2.5 Determination of Wear 231

6.2.6 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope 232

6.3 Results and Discussion 232

6.3.1 Effect of Vickers Hardness on the Dental Composite Filled with Silane-Treated Nanosilica 232

6.3.2 Effect of Flexural Strength on the Dental Composite Filled with Silane-Treated Nanosilica 233

6.3.3 Steady-State Condition for Wear Characterization in Food Slurry and Acidic Medium 233

6.3.3.1 Effect of Chewing Load on Volumetric Wear Rate on Dental Composite 233

6.3.3.2 Effect of Profile Speed on Volumetric Wear Rate of Dental Composite 235

6.3.3.3 Effect of Chamber Temperature on Volumetric Wear Rate of Dental Composite 236

6.3.4 Wear Analysis of Experimental Results by Taguchi Method and ANOVA Analysis 237

6.3.4.1 Wear Analysis of Silane-Treated Nanosilica-Filled Dental Composite in Food Slurry Using Taguchi and ANOVA 237

6.3.4.2 Wear Analysis of Silane-Treated Nanosilica-Filled Dental Composite in Citric Acid Using Taguchi and ANOVA 240

6.3.5 Surface Morphology of Worn Surfaces Under Food Slurry and Citric Acid Condition 241

6.3.6 Confirmation Experiment of Proposed Composites 243

6.4 Conclusions 244

Acknowledgments 245

Nomenclature 245

References 245

7 Performance of Regenerated Cellulose Nanocomposites Fabricated via Ionic Liquid Based on Halloysites and Vermiculite 249
Nurbaiti Abdul Hanid, Mat Uzir Wahit and Qipeng Guo

7.1 Introduction 250

7.1.1 Overview 250

7.1.2 Cellulose Structure and Properties 250

7.1.3 Regenerated Cellulose 251

7.1.4 Conventional Solvent for Cellulose 251

7.1.5 Dissolution of Cellulose in NMMO 252

7.1.6 Cellulose Dissolution in Ionic Liquid 253

7.1.7 Regenerated Cellulose Nanocomposites 255

7.1.8 Halloysites 255

7.1.9 Vermiculite 255

7.2 Experimental 256

7.2.1 Materials 256

7.2.2 Sample Preparation 257

7.2.2.1 The Preparation of Regenerated Cellulose via Ionic Liquid 257

7.2.2.2 Preparation of Regenerated Cellulose Nanocomposites via Ionic Liquids 257

7.2.3 Characterization of the Nanocomposites Films 257

7.3 Results and Discussions 258

7.3.1 XRD Patterns of RC Nanocomposites 258

7.3.2 FTIR Spectra of RC Nanocomposites 259

7.3.3 Mechanical Properties of RC Nanocomposites 261

7.3.4 Morphology Analysis of the RC Nanocomposites 263

7.3.4.1 Transmission Electron Micrographs Images Analysis 263

7.3.4.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy Images Analysis 264

7.3.5 Thermal Stability Analysis of RC Nanocomposites 265

7.3.6 Water Absorption of RC Nanocomposites 267

7.4 Conclusion 268

Acknowledgments 269

References 269

8 Preparation, Structure, Properties, and Interactions of the PVA/Cellulose Composites 275
Bai Huiyu

8.1 PVA and Cellulose 275

8.1.1 Polyvinyl Alcohol 275

8.1.1.1 Molecular Weight and the Degree of Alcoholysis 275

8.1.1.2 The Advantages and Disadvantages of PVA 276

8.1.2 Cellulose 277

8.1.2.1 Structure and Chemistry of Cellulose 277

8.1.2.2 Source of Cellulose 278

8.1.2.3 The Particle Types of Cellulose 278

8.1.2.4 Properties of Cellulose 279

8.1.2.5 Application of Cellulose 280

8.1.3 PVA/Cellulose Composites 280

8.1.3.1 The Properties of PVA/Cellulose Composites 280

8.1.3.2 Application of PVA/Cellulose Composites 281

8.2 The Bulk and Surface Modification of Cellulose Particles 281

8.2.1 The Bulk Modification of Cellulose Particles 281

8.2.1.1 Complex Modification 281

8.2.1.2 Graft Polymerization 282

8.2.2 The Surface Modification of Cellulose 283

8.2.2.1 Chemical Surface Modification 283

8.2.2.2 Physical Surface Modification 284

8.3 The Methods and Technology of Preparation of the PVA/Cellulose Composites 284

8.3.1 Solvent Casting 284

8.3.2 Melt Processing 285

8.3.3 Electrospun Fiber 285

8.3.4 In Situ Production 286

8.4 The Relationship between Structure and Properties of PVA/Cellulose Composites 286

8.4.1 Interpenetrating Polymer Network 286

8.4.2 Hydrogen-Bonding or Bond Network 287

8.4.3 Chemical Cross-Linked Network 287

8.5 The Effect of the Interaction between PVA and Cellulose on Properties of PVA/Cellulose Composites 288

8.5.1 Characterization Methods for the Interaction between PVA and Cellulose 288

8.5.1.1 Raman Spectroscopy 288

8.5.1.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry 288

8.5.1.3 X-Ray Powder Diffraction 289

8.5.1.4 Fourier Transform Infrared 289

8.5.2 Interaction between PVA and Cellulose 290

8.5.2.1 Molecular Interactions 290

8.5.2.2 Covalent Interactions 290

8.5.2.3 Nucleation of Cellulose 290

8.6 Conclusions and Outlook 291

References 291

9 Green Composites with Cellulose Nanoreinforcements 299
Denis Mihaela Panaitescu, Adriana Nicoleta Frone and Ioana Chiulan

9.1 Introduction 299

9.2 A Short Overview on Nanosized Cellulose 300

9.3 General Aspects on Green Composites with Cellulose Nanoreinforcements 304

9.4 Green Composites from Biopolyamides and Cellulose Nanoreinforcements 305

9.5 Green Composites from Polylactide and Cellulose Nanoreinforcements 309

9.5.1 General Aspects 309

9.5.2 Processing Methods 310

9.5.2.1 Solution Casting 310

9.5.2.2 Melt Processing 311

9.5.2.3 Other Processing Techniques 314

9.5.3 Mechanical, Thermal, and Morphological Properties 314

9.5.4 Applications 318

9.6 Microbial Polyesters Nanocellulose Composites 319

9.6.1 PHAs Biosynthesis 319

9.6.2 General Overview on PHAs–Nanocellulose Composites 321

9.6.3 Processing Strategies for the Preparation of PHAs–Cellulose Nanocomposites 321

9.6.4 Morphological, Thermal, and Mechanical Characteristics of PHAs/Nanocellulose 323

9.6.5 Biodegradability and Biocompatibility 327

9.6.6 Applications 328

9.7 Conclusions 328

Acknowledgment 329

References 329

10 Biomass Composites from Bamboo-Based Micro/Nanofibers 339
Haruo Nishida, Keisaku Yamashiro and Takayuki Tsukegi

10.1 Introduction 339

10.2 Bamboo Microfiber and Microcomposites 340

10.2.1 Bamboo Fibrovascular Bundle Structure 340

10.2.2 Preparation Methods of Short Bamboo Microfiber 341

10.2.3 Preparation of sBμF with Super-Heated Steam 342

10.2.3.1 SHS Treatment 342

10.2.3.2 Characterization Methods of sBμF 342

10.2.3.3 Changes in Surface Morphology of SHS-Treated Bamboo 344

10.2.3.4 Changes in Chemical and Physical Properties of SHS-Treated Bamboo 345

10.2.3.5 Classification of sBμF 348

10.2.4 Preparation of sBμF/Plastic Microcomposites 349

10.2.4.1 Mechanical and Physical Properties of sBμF/Plastic Microcomposites 349

10.2.4.2 Melt Processability of sBμF/Plastic Microcomposites 350

10.2.4.3 Electrical Properties of sBμF/Plastic Microcomposites 350

10.3 Bamboo Lignocellulosic Nanofiber and Nanocomposite 352

10.3.1 Nanofibrillation Technologies of Cellulose 352

10.3.2 Nanofibrillation Technologies of Lignocellulose 352

10.3.3 Reactive Processing for Nanofibrillation 353

10.3.4 Changes in Cellulose Crystalline Structure after Nanofibrillation 355

10.3.5 Preparation of BLCNF/Plastic Nanocomposites 355

10.3.6 Properties of BLCNF/Plastic Nanocomposites 356

10.4 Conclusions 357

References 358

11 Synthesis and Medicinal Properties of Polycarbonates and Resins from Renewable Sources 363
Selvaraj Mohana Roopan, T.V. Surendra and G. Madhumitha

11.1 Introduction 363

11.2 Synthesis 365

11.2.1 Chemical Synthesis of Polycarbonates 365

11.2.2 Synthesis of Polycarbonate from Eugenol 365

11.2.3 Synthesis of Renewable Bisphenols from 2,3-Pentanedione 366

11.2.4 Synthesis of Mesoporous PC–SiO2 367

11.2.5 Synthesis of Fluorinated Epoxy-Terminated Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (FBPA-PC EP) 367

11.2.6 Synthesis of Eugenol-Based Epoxy Resin (DEU-EP) 368

11.3 Polycarbonates from Renewable Resources 368

11.3.1 Ethylene from Biomass 368

11.3.2 Synthesis of Dianols via Microwave Degradation 369

11.3.3 Glycerol Carbonates from Recyclable Catalyst 369

11.3.4 Alternative to Phosgene for Aromatic Polycarbonate and Isocyanate Syntheses 370

11.3.5 Liquid-Phase Synthesis of Polycarbonate 371

11.4 Medicinal Properties 372

11.4.1 Polycarbonates in Drug Delivery 372

11.4.2 Polycarbonates in Gene Transformation 372

11.4.3 Cytotoxicity Test of Polycarbonates 373

11.4.4 Polycarbonates in Autoimmunity 374

11.4.5 Activation of Hyperprolactinemia and Immunostimulatory Response by Polycarbonates 375

11.5 Conclusion 376

References 376

12 Nanostructured Polymer Composites with Modified Carbon Nanotubes 381
A.P. Kharitonov, A.G. Tkachev, A.N. Blohin, I.V. Burakova, A.E. Burakov, A.E. Kucherova and A.A. Maksimkin

12.1 Introduction 382

12.1.1 Polymer Materials and Their Application 382

12.1.2 Carbon Nanotubes Application and Their Main Properties 387

12.2 Experimental Methods 390

12.2.1 Investigation of the CNTs Synthesis 390

12.2.2 CNTs Treatment 395

12.2.3 Composites Fabrication 395

12.2.4 Testing Procedures 395

12.3 Results and Discussion 396

12.3.1 FTIR Spectroscopy 396

12.3.2 Influence of Fluorination on the CNTs Specific Surface 396

12.3.3 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study 396

12.3.4 TGA of Virgin and Fluorinated CNTs 397

12.3.5 SEM Data of Composites Fracture 397

12.3.6 TGA and DSC of Composites 401

12.3.7 Mechanical Properties of Composites 402

12.3.7.1 Tensile Strength 402

12.3.7.2 Flexural Strength 403

12.4 Conclusion 403

Acknowledgments 404

References 404

13 Organic–Inorganic Nanocomposites Derived from Polysaccharides: Challenges and Opportunities 409
Ana Barros-Timmons, Fabiane Oliveira and José A. Lopes-da-Silva

13.1 Introduction 409

13.2 Constituents 412

13.2.1 Polysaccharides 412

13.2.2 Inorganic Nanofillers 413

13.3 Preparation of Polysaccharide-Derived Nanocomposites 414

13.3.1 Surface Modification 414

13.3.2 Addition of Components 416

13.3.3 In Situ Preparation of Nanoparticles via Precursors 419

13.4 Processing 421

13.4.1 Plasticizers 422

13.4.2 Conventional Processing Methods to Prepare Inorganic–Polysaccharide Nanocomposites 422

13.4.3 Emerging Methods to Prepare Inorganic–Polysaccharide Nanocomposites 424

13.5 Trends and Perspectives 426

Acknowledgments 426

References 427

14 Natural Polymer-Based Nanocomposites: A Greener Approach for the Future 433
Prasanta Baishya, Moon Mandal, Pankaj Gogoi and Tarun K. Maji

14.1 Introduction 433

14.2 Wood Polymer Nanocomposite 435

14.3 Basic Components of Wood Polymer Nanocomposite 436

14.4 Natural Polymer/Raw Material Used in Preparation of WPNC 436

14.4.1 Starch 436

14.4.2 Gluten 437

14.4.3 Chitosan 438

14.4.4 Vegetable Oil 439

14.4.4.1 Chemical Modification of Vegetable Oil 440

14.5 Wood 442

14.6 Cross-Linker 443

14.7 Modification of Natural Polymers 443

14.7.1 Grafting of Starch 443

14.7.2 Modification of Starch by Other Methods 444

14.7.3 Plasticizer 445

14.7.4 Nano-Reinforcing Agents 446

14.7.4.1 Montmorillonite 446

14.7.4.2 Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 447

14.7.4.3 Carbon Nanotubes 448

14.7.4.4 Nanocellulose 448

14.8 Properties of Natural Polymer-Based Composites 449

14.8.1 Mechanical Properties 449

14.8.2 Thermal Properties 450

14.8.3 Water Uptake and Dimensional Stability 450

14.9 Conclusion and Future Prospects 451

References 452

15 Cellulose Whisker-Based Green Polymer Composites 461
Silviya Elanthikkal, Tania Francis, C. Sangeetha and G. Unnikrishnan

15.1 Cellulose: Discovery, Sources, and Microstructure 462

15.1.1 Sources of Cellulose 462

15.1.2 Microstructure of Cellulose 463

15.2 Nanocellulose 466

15.2.1 Acid Hydrolysis 467

15.2.2 Mechanical Processes 470

15.2.3 TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation 471

15.2.4 Steam Explosion Method 472

15.2.5 Enzymatic Hydrolysis 473

15.2.6 Hydrolysis with Gaseous Acid 474

15.2.7 Treatment with Ionic Liquid 474

15.3 Polymer Composites 475

15.3.1 Polymer Composite Fabrication Techniques 476

15.3.1.1 Casting Evaporation Technique 476

15.3.1.2 Extrusion 476

15.3.1.3 Compression Molding 477

15.3.1.4 Injection Molding 478

15.3.2 Cellulose Whisker Composites: Literature-Based Discussion 478

15.3.2.1 Latex-Based Composites 478

15.3.2.2 Polar Polymer-Based Composites 479

15.3.2.3 Nonpolar Polymer-Based Composites 479

15.4 Applications of Cellulose Whisker Composites 483

15.4.1 Packaging 484

15.4.2 Automotive and Toys 484

15.4.3 Electronics 484

15.4.4 Biomedical Applications 485

References 486

16 Poly(Lactic Acid) Nanocomposites Reinforced with Different Additives 495
Ravi Babu Valapa, G. Pugazhenthi and Vimal Katiyar

16.1 Introduction 495

16.2 Biopolymers 497

16.2.1 Classification of Biopolymers 497

16.3 PLA Nanocomposites 502

16.3.1 PLA–Clay Nanocomposites 502

16.3.2 PLA–Carbonaceous Nanocomposites 507

16.3.3 PLA-Bio Filler Composites 510

16.3.4 PLA–Silica Nanocomposites 516

16.4 Summary 516

References 516

17 Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Green, Multifunctional and Sustainable Nanomaterials 523
Samira Bagheri, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli and Negar Mansouri

17.1 Introduction: Natural Based Products 523

17.2 Nanocellulose 524

17.2.1 Nanocellulose: Properties 524

17.2.1.1 Nanocellulose: Mechanical Properties 526

17.2.1.2 Nanocellulose: Physical Properties 526

17.2.1.3 Nanocellulose: Surface Chemistry Properties 529

17.2.2 Nanocellulose: Synthesis Process 529

17.2.2.1 Conventional Acid Hydrolysis Process 529

17.2.3 Nanocellulose: Limitations 530

17.2.3.1 Single Particles Dispersion 530

17.2.3.2 Barrier Properties 530

17.2.3.3 Permeability Properties 531

17.3 Nanocellulose: Chemical Functionalization 531

17.3.1 Organic Compounds Functionalization 532

17.3.1.1 Molecular Functionalization 532

17.3.1.2 Macromolecular Functionalization 536

17.3.2 Nanocellulose: Inorganic Compounds Functionalization 539

17.3.2.1 Nanocellulose-Titanium Oxide Functionalization 539

17.3.2.2 Nanocellulose-Fluorine Functionalization 539

17.3.2.3 Nanocellulose-Gold Functionalization 540

17.3.2.4 Nanocellulose-Silver Functionalization 540

17.3.2.5 Nanocellulose-Pd Functionalization 540

17.3.2.6 Nanocellulose-CdS Functionalization 541

17.4 Applications of Functionalized Nanocellulose 541

17.4.1 Wastewater Treatment 541

17.4.2 Biomedical Applications 542

17.4.3 Biosensor and Bioimaging 542

17.4.4 Catalysis 543

17.5 Conclusion 543

Acknowledgment 544

References 544

18 Halloysite-Based Bionanocomposites 557
Giuseppe Lazzara, Marina Massaro, Stefana Milioto and Serena Riela

18.1 Introduction 557

18.2 Biodegradable Polymers 559

18.2.1 Cellulose 559

18.2.2 Chitosan 560

18.2.3 Starch 561

18.2.4 Alginate 562

18.2.5 Pectin 562

18.3 Natural Inorganic Filler: Halloysite Nanotubes 563

18.3.1 Functionalization of HNTs 565

18.3.1.1 Functionalization of External Surface 565

18.3.1.2 Functionalization of the Lumen 567

18.3.2 Composites Structured with Halloysite 568

18.4 Bionanocomposites 569

18.4.1 HNT-Biopolymer Nanocomposite Formation 569

18.4.2 Properties of HNTs-Biopolymer Nanocomposites 570

18.4.2.1 Bionanocomposites Surface Morphology 571

18.4.2.2 Bionanocomposites Mechanical and Thermal Response 573

18.5 Applications of HNT/Polysaccharide Nanocomposites 576

18.6 Conclusions 578

References 579

19 Nanostructurated Composites Based on Biodegradable Polymers and Silver Nanoparticles 585
Oana Fufă, George Mihail Vlăsceanu, Georgiana Dolete, Daniela Cabuzu, Rebecca Alexandra Puiu, Andreea Cîrjă, Bogdan Nicoară and Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

19.1 Introduction 585

19.2 Silver Nanoparticles 586

19.3 Applications of Silver Nanoparticles 588

19.4 Silver Nanoparticle Composites 594

19.4.1 In situ and ex situ Strategies for AgNPs-Based Composites with Polymer Matrix 594

19.4.2 Other AgNPs Composites 599

19.5 Applications of Silver Nanoparticles Composites 600

19.5.1 Active Substance Delivery Composites 600

19.5.2 Antimicrobial Composites 603

19.6 Conclusions and Future Prospectives 607

Acknowledgments 608

References 608

20 Starch-Based Biomaterials and Nanocomposites 623
Arantzazu Valdés and María Carmen Garrigós

20.1 Introduction 623

20.2 Starch: Structure and Characteristics 625

20.3 Applicability of Starch in Food Industry 627

20.3.1 Starch Biomaterials: Films, Coatings, and Blends 629

20.3.2 Reinforced Materials 631

20.3.3 Starch Nanoparticles 632

20.4 Conclusion 632

References 633

21 Green Nanocomposites-Based on PLA and Natural Organic Fillers 637
Roberto Scaffaro, Luigi Botta, Francesco Lopresti, Andrea Maio and Fiorenza Sutera

21.1 Introduction 637

21.2 Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) 638

21.3 Natural Organic Nanofillers 640

21.3.1 Cellulose 641

21.3.1.1 Main Derivatization Methods Used to Increase Cellulose Affinity to PLA 643

21.3.2 Chitin 645

21.3.3 Starch 646

21.4 Bionanocomposites Based on PLA 648

21.4.1 PLA/cellulose Nanocomposites 648

21.4.1.1 Preparation 648

21.4.1.2 Properties 651

21.4.1.3 Degradation 653

21.4.2 PLA/chitin Nanocomposites 654

21.4.2.1 Preparation 654

21.4.2.2 Properties 655

21.4.3 PLA/starch Nanocomposites 656

21.4.3.1 Preparation 656

21.4.3.2 Properties 657

21.5 Conclusions 659

References 659

22 Chitin and Chitosan-Based (NANO) Composites 671
André R. Fajardo, Antonio G. B. Pereira, Alessandro F. Martins, Alexandre T. Paulino, Edvani C. Muniz and You-Lo Hsieh

22.1 Introduction 672

22.1.1 Chitin 672

22.1.2 Chitosan 673

22.2 Chitin and Chitosan Properties and Processing 674

22.3 Preparation and Characterization of Ct and Cs Composites: An Overview 675

22.4 Ct- and Cs-Metal Composites 679

22.5 Ct and Cs-Inorganic Composites 685

22.5.1 Food Packaging 685

22.5.2 Membranes 685

22.5.3 Biomedical Uses 685

22.5.4 Environmental Remediation 686

22.6 Composites Based on Ct and Cs Whiskers 687

22.7 Overview, Perspectives, and Conclusion 690

References 691

Index 701