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Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 8, Nanocomposites: Advanced Applications

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Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 8, Nanocomposites: Advanced Applications

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The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication.

This 8th volume of the Handbook is solely focused on the Nanocomposites: Advanced Applications. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: virgin and recycled polymers applied to advanced nanocomposites; biodegradable polymer-carbon nanotube composites for water and wastewater treatment; eco-friendly nanocomposites of chitosan with natural extracts, antimicrobial agents and nanometals; controllable generation of renewable nanofibrils from green materials and their application in nanocomposites; nanocellulose and nanocellulose composites; poly (lactic acid) biopolymer composites and nanocomposites for biomedical and biopackaging applications; impact of nanotechnology in water treatment: carbon nanotube and graphene; nanomaterials in energy generation; sustainable green nanocomposites from bacterial bioplastics for food packaging applications; PLA-nanocomposites: a promising material for future from renewable resources; bio-composites from renewable resources: preparation and applications of chitosan-clay nanocomposites; nano materials: an advanced and versatile nano additive for kraft and paper industries; composites and nanocomposites based on polylactic acid obtaining; cellulose-containing scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning: applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery; biopolymer-based nanocomposites for environmental applications; calcium phosphate nanocomposites for biomedical and dental applications: recent developments; chitosan-metal nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization and applications; multi-carboxyl functionalized nano-cellulose/nano-bentonite composite for the effective removal and recovery of metal ions; biomimetic gelatin nanocomposite as a scaffold for bone tissue repair; natural starches-blended ionotropically-gelled   microparticles/beads for sustained drug release and ferrogels: smart materials for biomedical and remediation applications.

Preface xxi

1 Virgin and Recycled Polymers Applied to Advanced Nanocomposites 1
Luis Claudio Mendes and Sibele Piedade Cestari

1.1 Introduction 1

References 12

2 Biodegradable Polymer–Carbon Nanotube Composites for Water and Wastewater Treatments 15
Geoffrey S. Simate

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Synthesis of Biodegradable Polymer–Carbon Nanotube Composites 17

2.2.1 Introduction 17

2.2.2 Starch–Carbon Nanotube Composites 17

2.2.3 Cellulose–Carbon Nanotube Composites 18

2.2.4 Chitosan–Carbon Nanotubes Composites 20

2.3 Applications of Biodegradable Polymer–Carbon Nanotube Composites in Water and Wastewater Treatments 23

2.3.1 Removal of Heavy Metals 23

2.3.2 Removal of Organic Pollutants 26

2.4 Concluding Remarks 27

References 27

3 Eco-Friendly Nanocomposites of Chitosan with Natural Extracts, Antimicrobial Agents, and Nanometals 35
Iosody Silva-Castro, Pablo Martín-Ramos, Petruta Mihaela Matei, Marciabela Fernandes-Correa, Salvador Hernández-Navarro and Jesús Martín-Gil

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Properties and Formation of Chitosan Oligosaccharides 37

3.3 Nanomaterials from Renewable Materials 39

3.3.1 Chitosan Combined with Biomaterials 39

3.3.2 Chitosan Cross-Linked with Natural Extracts 41

3.3.3 Chitosan Co-Polymerized with Synthetic Species 42

3.4 Synthesis Methods for Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites 44

3.4.1 Biological Methods 44

3.4.2 Physical Methods 45

3.4.3 Chemical Methods 47

3.5 Analytical Techniques for the Identification of the Composite Materials 48

3.6 Advanced Applications of Bionanomaterials Based on Chitosan 49

3.6.1 Antimicrobial Applications 50

3.6.2 Biomedical Applications 51

3.6.2.1 Antimicrobial Activity of Wound Dressings 51

3.6.2.2 Drug Delivery 51

3.6.2.3 Tissue Engineering 51

3.6.3 Food-Related Applications 52

3.6.4 Environmental Applications 52

3.6.4.1 Metal Absorption 52

3.6.4.2 Wastewater Treatment 52

3.6.4.3 Agricultural Crops 53

3.6.5 Applications in Heritage Preservation 53

3.7 Conclusions 54

Acknowledgments 55

References 55

4 Controllable Generation of Renewable Nanofibrils from Green Materials and Their Application in Nanocomposites 61
Jinyou Lin, Xiaran Miao, Xiangzhi Zhang and Fenggang Bian

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 Generation of CNF from Jute Fibers 63

4.2.1 Experimental Section 63

4.2.2 Results and Discussion 64

4.2.3 Short Summary 71

4.3 Controllable Generation of CNF from Jute Fibers 72

4.3.1 Experimental Section 73

4.3.2 Results and Discussion 74

4.3.3 Short Summary 86

4.4 CNF Generation from Other Nonwood Fibers 86

4.4.1 Experiments Details 86

4.4.1 Results and Discussion 88

4.4.3 Summary 96

4.5 Applications in Nanocomposites 97

4.5.1 CNF-Reinforced Polymer Composite 97

4.5.2 Surface Coating as Barrier 100

4.5.3 Assembled into Microfiber and Film 101

4.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 102

Acknowledgments 103

References 103

5 Nanocellulose and Nanocellulose Composites: Synthesis, Characterization, and Potential Applications 109
Ming-Guo Ma, Yan-Jun Liu and Yan-Yan Dong

5.1 Introduction 109

5.2 Nanocellulose 110

5.3 Nanocellulose Composites 117

5.3.1 Hydrogels Based on Nanocellulose Composites 117

5.3.2 Aerogels Based on Nanocellulose Composites 120

5.3.3 Electrode Materials Based on Nanocellulose Composites 124

5.3.4 Photocatalytic Materials Based on Nanocellulose Composites 124

5.3.5 Antibacterial Materials Based on Nanocellulose Composites 125

5.3.6 Sustained Release Applications Based on Nanocellulose Composites 125

5.3.7 Sensors Based on the Nanocellulose Composites 127

5.3.8 Mechanical Properties 127

5.3.9 Biodegradation Properties 128

5.3.10 Virus Removal 129

5.3.11 Porous Materials 129

5.4 Summary 130

Acknowledgments 131

References 131

6 Poly(Lactic Acid) Biopolymer Composites and Nanocomposites for Biomedicals and Biopackaging Applications 135
S.C. Agwuncha, E.R. Sadiku, I.D. Ibrahim, B.A. Aderibigbe, S.J. Owonubi O. Agboola, A. Babul Reddy, M. Bandla, K. Varaprasad, B.L. Bayode and S.S. Ray

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 Preparations of PLA 137

6.3 Biocomposite 138

6.4 PLA Biocomposites 139

6.5 Nanocomposites 140

6.6 PLA Nanocomposites 140

6.7 Biomaterials 141

6.8 PLA Biomaterials 142

6.9 Processing Advantages of PLA Biomaterials 143

6.10 PLA as Packaging Materials 145

6.11 Biomedical Application of PLA 146

6.12 Medical Implants 146

6.13 Some Clinical Applications of PLA Devices 147

6.13.1 Fibers 147

6.13.2 Meshes 149

6.13.3 Bone Fixation Devices 150

6.13.4 Stress-Shielding Effect 151

6.13.5 Piezoelectric Effect 151

6.13.6 Screws, Pins, and Rods 152

6.13.7 Plates 153

6.13.8 Microspheres, Microcapsules, and Thin Coatings 154

6.14 PLA Packaging Applications 155

6.15 Conclusion 156

References 157

7 Impact of Nanotechnology on Water Treatment: Carbon Nanotube and Graphene 171
Mohd Amil Usmani, Imran Khan, Aamir H. Bhat and M.K. Mohamad Haafiz

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 Threats to Water Treatment 173

7.3 Nanotechnology in Water Treatment 173

7.3.1 Nanomaterials for Water Treatment 175

7.3.2 Nanomaterials and Membrane Filtration 176

7.3.3 Metal Nanostructured Materials 178

7.3.4 Naturally Occurring Materials 179

7.3.5 Carbon Nano Compounds 180

7.3.5.1 Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Water Purification 181

7.3.5.2 Carbon Nanotubes as Catalysts or Co-Catalysts 185

7.3.5.3 Carbon Nanotubes in Photocatalysis 186

7.3.5.4 Carbon Nanotube Filters as Anti-Microbial Materials 188

7.3.5.5 Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Seawater Desalination 191

7.4 Polymer Nanocomposites 192

7.4.1 Graphene-Based Nanomaterials for Water Treatment Membranes 192

7.4.2 Dendrimers 193

7.5 Global Impact of Nanotechnology and Human Health 195

7.6 Conclusions 196

Acknowledgments 196

References 197

8 Nanomaterials in Energy Generation 207
Paulraj Manidurai and Ramkumar Sekar

8.1 Introduction 207

8.1.1 Increasing of Surface Energy and Tension 209

8.1.2 Decrease of Thermal Conductivity 209

8.1.3 The Blue Shift Effect 210

8.2 Applications of Nanotechnology in Medicine and Biology 211

8.3 In Solar Cells 211

8.3.1 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell 212

8.3.2 Composites from Renewable Materials for Photoanode 213

8.3.3 Composites from Renewable Materials for Electrolyte 214

8.3.4 Composites from Renewable Materials for Organic Solar Cells 215

8.4 Visible-Light Active Photocatalyst 216

8.5 Energy Storage 217

8.5.1 Thermal Energy Storage 217

8.5.2 Electrochemical Energy Storage 217

8.6 Biomechanical Energy Harvest and Storage Using Nanogenerator 218

8.7 Nanotechnology on Biogas Production 220

8.7.1 Impact of Metal Oxide Nanoadditives on the Biogas Production 223

8.8 Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities Using Nanoparticles 223

8.8.1 Antibacterial Activity 223

8.8.2 Antioxidant Activity 224

8.9 Conclusion 224

References 224

9 Sustainable Green Nanocomposites from Bacterial Bioplastics for Food-Packaging Applications 229
Ana M. Díez-Pascual

9.1 Introduction 229

9.2 Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Applications 231

9.2.1 Synthesis 231

9.2.2 Structure 232

9.2.3 Properties 233

9.2.4 Applications 234

9.3 ZnO Nanofillers: Structure, Properties, Synthesis, and Applications 235

9.3.1 Structure 235

9.3.2 Properties 235

9.3.3 Synthesis 236

9.3.4 Applications 237

9.4 Materials and Nanocomposite Processing 239

9.5 Characterization of PHA-Based Nanocomposites 239

9.5.1 Morphology 239

9.5.2 Crystalline Structure 241

9.5.3 FTIR Spectra 242

9.5.4 Crystallization and Melting Behavior 243

9.5.5 Thermal Stability 244

9.5.6 Dynamic Mechanical Properties 245

9.5.7 Static Mechanical Properties 247

9.5.8 Barrier Properties 249

9.5.9 Migration Properties 250

9.5.10 Antibacterial Properties 251

9.6 Conclusions and Outlook 253

References 253

10 PLA Nanocomposites: A Promising Material for Future from Renewable Resources 259
Selvaraj Mohana Roopan, J. Fowsiya, D. Devi Priya and G. Madhumitha

10.1 Introduction 259

10.1.1 Nanotechnology 259

10.1.2 Nanocomposites 260

10.2 Biopolymers 260

10.2.1 Structural Formulas of Few Biopolymers 261

10.2.2 Polylactide Polymers 261

10.3 PLA Production 262

10.3.1 PLA Properties 263

10.3.1.1 Rheological Properties 263

10.3.1.2 Mechanical Properties 263

10.4 PLA-Based Nanocomposites 264

10.4.1 Preparation of PLA Nanocomposites 264

10.4.2 Recent Research on PLA Nanocomposites 264

10.4.3 Application of PLA Nanocomposites 265

10.5 PLA Nanocomposites 265

10.5.1 PLA/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite 266

10.5.2 PLA/Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites 268

10.5.3 PLA/Starch Nanocomposites 268

10.5.4 PLA/Cellulose Nanocomposites 270

10.6 Conclusion 271

References 271

11 Biocomposites from Renewable Resources: Preparation and Applications of Chitosan–Clay Nanocomposites 275
A. Babul Reddy, B. Manjula, T. Jayaramudu, S.J. Owonubi, E.R. Sadiku, O. Agboola, V. Sivanjineyulu and Gomotsegang F. Molelekwa

11.1 Introduction 276

11.2 Structure, Properties, and Importance of Chitosan and its Nanocomposites 278

11.3 Structure, Properties, and Importance of Montmorillonite 283

11.4 Chitosan–Clay Nanocomposites 284

11.5 Preparation Chitosan–Clay Nanocomposites 286

11.6 Applications of Chitosan–Clay Nanocomposites 290

11.6.1 Food-Packaging Applications 290

11.6.2 Electroanalytical Applications 291

11.6.3 Tissue-Engineering Applications 292

11.6.4 Electrochemical Sensors Applications 292

11.6.5 Wastewater Treatment Applications 293

11.6.6 Drug Delivery Systems 294

11.7 Conclusions 295

Acknowledgment 296

References 296

12 Nanomaterials: An Advanced and Versatile Nanoadditive for Kraft and Paper Industries 305
Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli, Samira Bagheri and Negar Mansouri

12.1 An Overview: Paper Industries 305

12.1.1 Manufacturing: Paper Industries 306

12.1.2 Nanotechnology 306

12.1.3 Nanotechnology: Paper Industries 307

12.2 Nanobleaching Agents: Paper Industries 307

12.2.1 Nano Calcium Silicate Particle 307

12.3 Nanosizing Agents: Paper Industries 308

12.3.1 Nanosilica/Hybrid 308

12.3.2 Nano Titanium Oxide/Hybrid 308

12.4 Nano Wet/Dry Strength Agents: Paper Industries 309

12.4.1 Nanocellulose 309

12.5 Nanopigment: Paper Industries 311

12.5.1 Nanokaolin 312

12.5.2 Nano ZnO/Hybrid 312

12.5.3 Nanocarbonate 313

12.6 Nanoretention Agents: Paper Industries 313

12.6.1 Nanozeolite 313

12.6.2 Nano TiO2 313

12.7 Nanomineral Filler: Paper Industries 314

12.7.1 Nanoclay 315

12.7.2 Nano Calcium Carbonate 315

12.7.3 Nano TiO2/Hybrid 315

12.8 Nano Superconductor Agents: Paper Industries 315

12.8.1 Nano ZnO 315

12.9 Nanodispersion Agents: Paper Industries 316

12.9.1 Nanopolymer 316

12.10 Certain Challenges Associated with Nanoadditives 317

12.11 Conclusion and Future Prospective 317

Acknowledgments 318

Conflict of Interests 318

References 318

13 Composites and Nanocomposites Based on Polylactic Acid 327
Mihai Cosmin Corobea, Zina Vuluga, Dorel Florea, Florin Miculescu and Stefan Ioan Voicu

13.1 Introduction 327

13.2 Obtaining Composites and Nanocomposite Based on PLA 329

13.2.1 Obtaining-Properties Aspects for Composites Based on PLA 332

13.2.2 Obtaining-Properties Aspects for Nanocomposite Based on PLA 336

13.2.3 Applications 351

13.3 Conclusions 352

Acknowledgment 353

References 353

14 Cellulose-Containing Scaffolds Fabricated by Electrospinning: Applications in Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery 361
Alex López-Córdoba, Guillermo R. Castro and Silvia Goyanes

14.1 Introduction 361

14.2 Cellulose: Structure and Major Sources 362

14.3 Cellulose Nanofibers Fabricated by Electrospinning 364

14.3.1 Electrospinning Set-Up 364

14.3.2 Modified Electrospinning Processes 365

14.3.3 Electrospinnability of Cellulose and its Derivatives 366

14.4 Cellulose-Containing Nanocomposite Fabricated by Electrospinning 369

14.4.1 Electrospun Nanocomposites Reinforced with Nanocellulosic Materials 370

14.4.2 Electrospun Nanocomposites Based on Blends of Cellulose or its Derivatives with Nanoparticles 370

14.4.3 Electrospun Nanocomposites Based on Cellulose/Polymer Blends 373

14.4.4 Electrospun All-Cellulose Composites 374

14.5 Applications of Cellulose-Containing Electrospun Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering 375

14.6 Cellulose/Polymer Electrospun Scaffolds for Drug Delivery 379

14.7 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 382

Acknowledgments 382

References 382

15 Biopolymer-Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications 389
Ibrahim M. El-Sherbiny and Isra H. Ali

15.1 Introduction 389

15.1.1 Classification of Biopolymers According to Their Origin 390

15.1.2 Classification of Biopolymers According to Their Structure 390

15.1.3 Biopolymers as Promising Eco-Friendly Materials 390

15.2 Biopolymers: Chemistry and Properties 391

15.2.1 Polysaccharides 391

15.2.1.1 Starch 391

15.2.1.2 Cellulose 393

15.2.1.3 Chitin 395

15.2.2 Alginate 397

15.2.2.1 Origin 397

15.2.3 Proteins 398

15.2.3.1 Albumin 398

15.2.3.2 Collagen 398

15.2.3.3 Gelatin 399

15.2.3.4 Silk Proteins 399

15.2.3.5 Keratin 400

15.2.4 Microbial Polyesters 400

15.2.4.1 Polyhydroxylalkanoates 400

15.3 Preparation Techniques of Polymer Nanocomposites 400

15.3.1 Direct Compounding 400

15.3.2 In Situ Synthesis 401

15.3.3 Other Techniques 402

15.3.3.1 Electrospinning 403

15.3.3.2 Self-Assembly 403

15.3.3.3 Phase Separation 403

15.3.3.4 Template Synthesis 403

15.4 Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposites 403

15.5 Environmental Application of Biopolymers-Based Nanocomposites 404

15.5.1 Pollutants Removal: Catalytic and Redox Degradation 404

15.5.1.1 Semiconductor Nanoparticles 405

15.5.1.2 Zero-Valent Metals Nanoparticles 405

15.5.1.3 Bimetallic Nanoparticles 406

15.5.2 Pollutants Removal: Adsorption 406

15.5.3 Pollutants Sensing 407

15.5.4 Biopolymers-Based Nanocomposites in Green Chemistry 407

15.6 Conclusion and Future Aspects 409

References 409

16 Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposites for Biomedical and Dental Applications: Recent Developments 423
Andy H. Choi and Besim Ben-Nissan

16.1 Introduction 423

16.2 Hydroxyapatite 426

16.3 Calcium Phosphate-Based Nanocomposite Coatings 428

16.3.1 Collagen 428

16.3.2 Chitosan 429

16.3.3 Liposomes 430

16.3.4 Synthetic Polymers 430

16.4 Calcium Phosphate-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 431

16.4.1 Calcium Phosphate–Chitosan Nanocomposites 433

16.4.2 Calcium Phosphate–Collagen Nanocomposites 434

16.4.3 Calcium Phosphate–Silk Fibroin Nanocomposites 436

16.4.4 Calcium Phosphate–Cellulose Nanocomposites 437

16.4.5 Calcium Phosphate–Synthetic Polymer Nanocomposites 437

16.5 Calcium Phosphate-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Drug Delivery 438

16.6 Concluding Remarks 443

References 444

17 Chitosan–Metal Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications 451
Vinod Saharan, Ajay Pal, Ramesh Raliya and Pratim Biswas

17.1 Introduction 451

17.2 Chitosan: A Promising Biopolymer 452

17.2.1 Degree of Deacetylation 453

17.2.2 Chitosan Depolymerization 453

17.3 Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials 454

17.3.1 Synthesis of Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials 455

17.3.1.1 Ionic Gelation Method 455

17.4 Chitosan–Metal Nanocomposites 456

17.4.1 Chitosan–Zn Nanocomposite 456

17.4.2 Chitosan–Cu Nanocomposite 456

17.4.3 Application of Cu and Zn–Chitosan–Cu Nanocomposite 459

17.5 Other Natural Biopolymer in Comparison with Chitosan 461

17.6 Conclusion 462

References 462

18 Multicarboxyl-Functionalized Nanocellulose/Nanobentonite Composite for the Effective Removal and Recovery of Uranium (VI), Thorium (IV), and Cobalt (II) from Nuclear Industry Effluents and Sea Water 465
T.S. Anirudhan and J.R. Deepa

18.1 Introduction 465

18.2 Materials and Methods 468

18.2.1 Materials 468

18.2.2 Equipment and Methods of Characterization 468

18.2.3 Preparation of Adsorbent 468

18.2.4 Adsorption Experiments 469

18.2.5 Desorption Experiments 470

18.2.6 Grafting Density 470

18.2.7 Determination of Functional Groups 470

18.2.8 Point of Zero Charge 471

18.3 Results and Discussion 471

18.3.1 FTIR Analysis 471

18.3.2 XRD Analysis 473

18.3.3 Point of Zero Charge, Degree of Grafting, and –COOH

Determination 474

18.3.4 Thermogravimetric Analysis 475

18.3.5 Effect of pH on Metal Ions Adsorption 475

18.3.6 Adsorption Kinetics 477

18.3.7 Adsorption Isotherm 479

18.3.8 Adsorption Thermodynamics 480

18.3.9 Reuse of the Adsorbent 481

18.3.10 Test of the Adsorbent with Nuclear Industry Wastewater and Sea Water 482

18.4 Conclusions 483

Acknowledgments 483

References 483