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Handbook of Fermented Meat and Poultry, 2nd Edition


Fermented meat products have been consumed for centuries in many different parts of the world and constitute one of the most important groups of food. Bacterial cultures are used in their manufacture to preserve the meat and confer particular textures and sensory attributes. Examples of fermented meats include salami, chorizo, pepperoni and saucisson.

This fully revised and expanded reference book on meat fermentation presents all the principle fermented meat products and the processing technologies currently used in their manufacture. The 54 chapters of this substantial book are grouped into the following sections:

  • Meat fermentation worldwide: overview, production and principles
  • Raw materials
  • Microbiology and starter cultures for meat fermentation
  • Sensory attributes
  • Product categories: general considerations
  • Semidry-fermented sausages
  • Dry-fermented sausages
  • Other fermented meats and poultry
  • Ripened meat products
  • Biological and chemical safety of fermented meat products
  • Processing sanitation and quality assurance

There are five new chapters in the second edition that address the following topics:  Smoking and new smoke flavourings; Probiotics; Methodologies for the study of the microbial ecology in fermented sausages; Low sodium in meat products; and Asian sausages.

Handbook of Fermented Meat and Poultry, Second Edition provides readers with a full overview of meat fermentation, the role of microorganisms naturally present and/or added as starter cultures, safety aspects and an account of the main chemical, biochemical, physical and microbiological changes that occur in processing and how they affect final quality. Finally, readers will find the main types of worldwide fermented meat products, typically produced in different areas, with the description of their main characteristics.

List of Contributors, xvii

Preface, xxi

Part I Meat Fermentation Worldwide: Overview, Production, and Principles, 1

1 Dry-Fermented Sausages and Ripened Meats: An Overview, 3
Fidel Toldra and Y.H. Hui

2 Production and Consumption of Fermented Meat Products, 7
Herbert W. Ockerman and Lopa Basu

3 Principles of Meat Fermentation, 13
Eero Puolanne and Esko Petaja-Kanninen

4 Principles of Curing, 19
Ronald B. Pegg and Karl O. Honikel

5 Principles of Drying, 31
Raul Grau, Ana Andres, and Jose M. Barat

6 Principles of Smoking, 39
Zdzis³aw E. Sikorski and Izabela Sinkiewicz

Part II Raw Materials, 47

7 The Biochemistry of Meat and Fat, 49
Fidel Toldra and Milagro Reig

8 Ingredients, 55
Jorge Ruiz and Trinidad Perez-Palacios

9 Additives, 69
Pedro Roncales

10 Spices and Seasonings, 79
Suey Ping Chi and Yun Chu Wu

11 Casings, 89
Yun Chu Wu, Suey Ping Chi, and Souad Christieans

Part III Microbiology and Starter Cultures, 97

12 Microorganisms in Traditional Fermented Meats, 99
Sabine Leroy, Isabelle Lebert, and Regine Talon

13 The Microbiology of Fermentation and Ripening, 107
Margarita Garriga and Teresa Aymerich

14 Bacteria, 117
Pier Sandro Cocconcelli and Cecilia Fontana

15 Bioprotective Cultures, 129
Graciela Vignolo, Patricia Castellano, and Silvina Fadda

16 Yeasts, 139
M.D. Selgas and M.L. García

17 Molds, 147
Elettra Berni

18 Probiotics, 155
Keizo Arihara

19 The Genetics of Microbial Starters, 161
Jamila Anba-Mondoloni, Marie-Christine Champomier-Verges, Monique Zagorec, Sabine Leroy, Emilie Dordet-Frisoni, Stella Planchon, and Regine Talon

20 The Influence of Processing Parameters on Starter Culture Performance, 169
F. Leroy, T. Goudman and L. De Vuyst

21 Methodologies for the Study of Microbial Ecology in Fermented Sausages, 177
Valentina Alessandria, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Paola Dolci, and Luca Cocolin

Part IV Sensory Attributes, 189

22 Sensory Analyses-General Considerations, 191
Asgeir Nilsen, Marit Rødbotten, Ken Prusa, and Chris Fedler

23 Color, 195
Jens K.S. Møller, Sisse Jongberg, and Leif H. Skibsted

24 Texture, 207
Shai Barbut

25 Flavor, 217
Monica Flores and Alicia Olivares

Part V Product Categories: General Considerations, 227

26 Composition and Nutrition, 229
Daniel Demeyer

27 Functional Dry-Fermented Sausages, 241
Diana Ansorena and Iciar Astiasaran

28 Low-Sodium Products, 251
Fidel Toldra and Jose M. Barat

29 International Standards: United States, 259
Elizabeth Boyle and Melvin C. Hunt

30 International Standards: Europe, 263
Reinhard Fries

31 Packaging and Storage, 273
Byungrok Min and Dong Uk Ahn

Part VI Semidry-Fermented Sausages, 281

32 US Products-Semidry Sausage, 283
Robert E. Rust

33 European Products, 287
Friedrich-Karl Lucke

Part VII Dry-Fermented Sausages, 293

34 US Products-Dry Sausage, 295
Robert Maddock

35 Mediterranean Products, 301
Eva Hierro, Manuela Fernandez, Lorenzo de la Hoz, and Juan A. Ordoñez

36 Northern European Products, 313
Askild Holck, Even Heir, Tom C. Johannessen, and Lars Axelsson

37 Asian Products, 321
Ming-Ju Chen, Rung-Jen Tu, and Sheng-Yao Wang

Part VIII Fermented Products from Poultry and Other Meats, 329

38 Fermented Poultry Sausages, 331
E. Arnaud, S.J. Santchurn, and A. Collignan

39 Fermented Sausages from Other Meats, 339
Emin Burcin Ozvural and Halil Vural

Part IX Ripened Meat Products, 345

40 US Products-Dry-Cured Hams, 347
Dana J. Hanson, Gregg Rentfrow, M. Wes Schilling, W. Benjy Mikel, Kenneth J. Stalder, and Nicholas L. Berry

41 Central and South American Products, 355
Silvina Fadda and Graciela Vignolo

42 Mediterranean Products, 361
Mario Estevez, Sonia Ventanas, David Morcuende, and Jesus Ventanas

43 Nordic Products, 371
Torunn Thauland Haseth, Gudjon Thorkelsson, Eero Puolanne, and Maan Singh Sidhu

44 Asian Products, 377
Guang-Hong Zhou and Gai-Ming Zhao

Part X Biological and Chemical Safety of Fermented Meat Products, 383

45 Spoilage Microorganisms: Risks and Control, 385
Marie-Christine Champomier-Verges and Monique Zagorec

46 Pathogens: Risks and Control, 389
Panagiotis Skandamis and George-John E. Nychas

47 Biogenic Amines: Risks and Control, 413
M. Carmen Vidal-Carou, M. Teresa Veciana-Nogues, M. Luz Latorre-Moratalla, and Sara Bover-Cid

48 Toxic Compounds of Chemical Origin, 429
Milagro Reig and Fidel Toldra

49 Foodborne Outbreaks, 435
Colin Pierre

Part XI Processing Sanitation and Quality Assurance, 441

50 Basic Sanitation, 443
Beatriz Melero, Ana M. Diez, and Jordi Rovira

51 Processing Plant Sanitation, 451
Jordi Rovira, Ana M. Diez, and Beatriz Melero

52 Quality Control, 461
Fidel Toldra, Monica Flores, and M. Concepcion Aristoy

53 HACCP: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, 469
M.J. Fraqueza and A.S. Barreto

54 Quality Assurance Plan, 487
Friedrich-Karl Lucke

Index, 495