Skip to main content

Handbook of Food Science and Technology 3: Food Biochemistry and Technology

Handbook of Food Science and Technology 3: Food Biochemistry and Technology

 E-Book

$116.99

Description

This third volume in the Handbook of Food Science and Technology Set explains the processing of raw materials into traditional food (bread, wine, cheese, etc.). The agri-food industry has evolved in order to meet new market expectations of its products; with the use of separation and assembly technologies, food technologists and engineers now increasingly understand and control the preparation of a large diversity of ingredients using additional properties to move from the raw materials into new food products.

Taking into account the fundamental basis and technological specificities of the main food sectors, throughout the three parts of this book, the authors investigate the biological and biochemical conversions and physicochemical treatment of food from animal sources, plant sources and food ingredients. 

 

Introduction  xi
Gérard BRULÉ

Part 1. Food from Animal Sources  1

Chapter 1. From Milk to Dairy Products 3
Thomas CROGUENNEC, Romain JEANTET and Pierre SCHUCK

1.1. The biochemistry and physical chemistry of milk 3

1.1.1. Milk fat 4

1.1.2. Carbohydrates 8

1.1.3. Proteins 10

1.1.4. Milk minerals 15

1.2. Biological and physicochemical aspects of milk processing 17

1.2.1. The stability of fat globules 17

1.2.2. Protein stability 19

1.3. Dairy product technology 25

1.3.1. Liquid milk 25

1.3.2. Fermented milk products 29

1.3.3. Milk powder 32

1.3.4. Cheese 39

1.3.5. Cream and butter 58

Chapter 2. From Muscle to Meat and Meat Products 65
Catherine GUÉRIN

2.1. The biochemistry of muscle (land animals and fish) 65

2.1.1. The structure and composition of meat and fish muscle  66

2.1.2. Muscle structure 73

2.1.3. Proteins 78

2.1.4. Carbohydrates 88

2.1.5. Vitamins and minerals 88

2.2. Biological and physicochemical changes in muscle 89

2.2.1. Muscle contraction 89

2.2.2. Changes in muscle after death 91

2.3. Meat and fish processing technology 102

2.3.1. Meat processing technology 102

2.3.2. Fish processing technology 109

Chapter 3. From Eggs to Egg Products 115
Marc ANTON, Valérie LECHEVALIER and Françoise NAU

3.1. Chicken egg – raw material in the egg industry 117

3.1.1. Structure and composition 117

3.1.2. Biochemical and physicochemical properties of the protein and lipid fractions of egg 120

3.2. Physicochemical properties of the different egg fractions 125

3.2.1. Interfacial properties 125

3.2.2. Gelling properties 131

3.3. The egg industry: technology and products 136

3.3.1. Decontamination of shells  138

3.3.2. Breaking and separation of the egg white and yolk 138

3.3.3. Primary processing of egg products – decontamination and stabilization 139

3.3.4. Secondary processing of egg products 142

3.3.5. Egg extracts 143

Part 2. Food from Plant Sources 145

Chapter 4. From Wheat to Bread and Pasta 147
Hubert CHIRON and Philippe ROUSSEL

4.1. Biochemistry and physical chemistry of wheat 150

4.1.1. Overall composition 150

4.1.2. Structure and properties of the constituents 154

4.2. Biological and physicochemical factors of wheat processing 163

4.2.1. Development of texture 164

4.2.2. Development of color and flavor 170

4.3. The technology of milling, bread making and pasta making 172

4.3.1. Processing of wheat into flour and semolina 172

4.3.2. Bread making 180

4.3.3. Pasta making 195

Chapter 5. From Barley to Beer 205
Romain JEANTET and Ludivine PERROCHEAU

5.1. Biochemistry and structure of barley and malt 205

5.1.1. Morphology of barley grain 206

5.1.2. Biochemical composition of barley 207

5.1.3. Composition and structure of starch and protein 208

5.1.4. Effect of malting 209

5.2. Biological and physicochemical factors of processing 213

5.2.1. Enzymatic degradation of starch and protein 214

5.2.2. Fermentability of the wort 220

5.3. Brewing technology 221

5.3.1. Stages of malting 221

5.3.2. Stages of beer production 224

Chapter 6. From Fruit to Fruit Juice and Fermented Products 231
Alain BARON, Mohammad TURK and Jean-Michel Le QUÉRÉ

6.1. Fruit development 231

6.1.1. Stages of development 231

6.1.2. Fruit ripening 233

6.2. Biochemistry of fruit juice  237

6.2.1. Pectins 238

6.2.2. Pectinolytic enzymes 241

6.2.3. Bitter and astringent compounds 245

6.3. Fruit juice processing 249

6.3.1. Preparation of fruit 249

6.3.2. Pre-treatment 250

6.3.3. Pressing 250

6.3.4. Treatment of fruit juice 253

6.3.5. Pasteurization, high-pressure treatment, pulsed electric fields and concentration 262

6.4. Cider 264

6.4.1. French cider 264

6.4.2. Fermentation process 265

6.4.3. Action of microorganisms 267

6.4.4. Fermentation and post-fermentation 271

Chapter 7. From Grape to Wine 275
Thomas CROGUENNEC

7.1. Raw materials 276

7.1.1. Grape variety 276

7.1.2. Composition of grapes 276

7.2. Winemaking techniques 280

7.2.1. State of the harvest and adjustments 281

7.2.2. Physicochemical processes involved in winemaking 282

7.2.3. Biological processes involved in winemaking: fermentation 285

7.3. Stabilization and maturation of wine 289

7.3.1. Biological stabilization 289

7.3.2. Physicochemical stabilization 290

7.3.3. Maturation of wine 291

7.4. Specific technology 292

7.4.1. Sparkling wines (traditional method) 292

7.4.2. Sweet wines 293

Chapter 8. From Fruit and Vegetables to Fresh-Cut Products 297
Florence CHARLES and Patrick VAROQUAUX

8.1. Respiratory activity of plants 298

8.1.1. Measurement and modeling of respiratory activity 299

8.1.2. Control of respiratory activity 301

8.2. Enzymatic browning 302

8.2.1. Mechanism and evaluation 302

8.2.2. Prevention of enzymatic browning 303

8.3. Unit operations in the production of fresh-cut products: main scientific and technical challenges 304

8.3.1. Raw materials: selection of varieties and cultivation methods 306

8.3.2. Raw material quality control: grading 307

8.3.3. Trimming and mixing 307

8.3.4. Cutting 308

8.3.5. Washing and disinfection 309

8.3.6. Draining and drying 312

8.3.7. Weighing 313

8.3.8. Bagging 313

8.4. Modified atmosphere packaging 314

8.4.1. Diffusion of gases through packaging 315

8.4.2. Change in gas content in modified atmosphere packaging 317

8.5. Conclusion 319

Part 3. Food Ingredients 321

Chapter 9. Functional Properties of Ingredients 323
Gérard BRULÉ and Thomas CROGUENNEC

9.1. Interactions with water: hydration and thickening properties 324

9.1.1. Types of interaction 324

9.1.2. Influence of hydrophilic components on water availability and mobility 325

9.1.3. Influence of hydration on the solubilization, structure and mobility of compounds 325

9.1.4. Effect of the hydration of components on rheological properties 326

9.2. Intermolecular interactions: texture properties 326

9.2.1. Aggregation/gelation by destabilization of macromolecules or particles 326

9.2.2. Aggregation/gelation by covalent cross-linking 327

9.2.3. Sol–gel transitions 329

9.2.4. Influence of denaturation kinetics and molecular interactions 329

9.3. Interfacial properties: foaming and emulsification 330

9.3.1. Interfacial tension 330

9.3.2. Surfactants 332

9.3.3. Emulsification and foaming 332

Chapter 10. Separation Techniques 335
Thomas CROGUENNEC and Valérie LECHEVALIER

10.1. Proteins and peptides 335

10.1.1. Milk proteins and peptides 335

10.1.2. Extraction of lysozyme from egg white 346

10.1.3. Extraction of gelatin 348

10.1.4. Plant proteins 349

10.2. Carbohydrates 351

10.2.1. Sucrose 351

10.2.2. Lactose 364

10.2.3. Polysaccharides 369

10.3. Lipids 378

10.3.1. Production of vegetable oils 379

10.3.2. Lipid modification 383

10.4. Pigments and flavorings 391

10.4.1. Types of pigments and flavorings 391

10.4.2. Extraction/concentration of colorings and flavors 397

10.4.3. Formulation 400

Bibliography 403

List of Authors 417

Index 419