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Handbook of Forensic Medicine

Handbook of Forensic Medicine

Burkhard Madea (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-57062-3 March 2014 Wiley-Blackwell 1312 Pages




Forensic Medicine encompasses all areas in which medicine and law interact. This book covers diverse aspects of forensic medicine including forensic pathology, traumatology and violent death, sudden and unexpected death, clinical forensic medicine, toxicology, traffic medicine, identification, haemogenetics and medical law. A knowledge of all these subdisciplines is necessary in order to solve routine as well as more unusual cases.

Taking a comprehensive approach the book m.oves beyond a focus on forensic pathology to include clinical forensic medicine and forensic toxicology. All aspects of forensic medicine are covered to meet the specialist needs of daily casework. Aspects of routine analysis and quality control are addressed in each chapter. The book provides coverage of the latest developments in forensic molecular biology, forensic toxicology, molecular pathology and immunohistochemistry.

A must-have reference for every specialist in the field this book is set to become the bench-mark for the international forensic medical community.

Contents ix

List of Contributors xix

Preface xxii

Foreword by Duarte Nuno Vieira xxiii

PART I Duties of Forensic 1

1 History of Forensic Medicine 3
Burkhard Madea

2 Duties of Forensic Medicine 15
Burkhard Madea and Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

3 Forensic Medicine and Human Rights 18
Hans Petter Hougen

4 International Guidelines and Accreditation in Forensic Medicine 34
Peter Wiegand, Burkhard Madea and Frank Musshoff

PART II Medical Aspects of Death 47

5 Nature and Defi nition of Death 49
Burkhard Madea

6 Certification of Death: External Postmortem Examination 57
Burkhard Madea and Antonella Argo

7 Postmortem Changes and Time Since Death 75
Burkhard Madea, Claus Henssge, Saskia Reibe, Michael Tsokos and Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

8 Cremation 134
Claas T. Buschmann and Michael Tsokos

9 Autopsy 138
Peter J. T. Knudsen, Jørgen L. Thomsen, Garyfalia Ampanozi and Michael J. Thali

10 The Doctor, the Dead and Their Relatives 161
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

11 Transplantation 166
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

12 Anthropology and Osteology 171
Cristina Cattaneo and Daniele Gibelli

13 Mass Disaster Victim Identification 192
Ruediger Lessig and Mechthild Prinz

PART III Traumatology and Violent Death 201

14 Legal Aspects of Traumatology and Violent Death 203
Philip Beh

15 Traumatology and Criminology 207
Philip Beh

16 Introduction to Some Biomechanical Principles 211
Heinz-Dieter Wehner

17 Sequelae of Traumatic Injuries and Causes of Death 216
Guy Rutty and Michael Tsokos

18 Vital Reactions and Wound Age Estimation 237
Burkhard Madea, Wolfgang Grellner and Toshikazu Kondo

19 Mechanical Trauma and Classification of Wounds 253
Burkhard Madea, Stefan Pollak, Annette Thierauf, Christoph Meissner, Manfred Oehmichen and Peter Mygind Leth

20 Forensic Ballistics: Injuries from Gunshots, Explosives and Arrows 328
Bernd Karger

21 Injuries due to Asphyxiation and Drowning 367
Wolfgang Keil, Philippe Lunetta, Richard Vann and Burkhard Madea

22 Injuries due to Heat 451
Burkhard Madea

23 Injuries due to Cold 468
Burkhard Madea

24 Electrocution and Lightning 477
Ryan Blumenthal

25 Starvation and Neglect 495
Burkhard Madea

26 Infanticide 504
Thomas Bajanowski and Mechtild M. Vennemann

27 Death during Pregnancy 516
Eberhard Lignitz, Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton and Veronique Henn

28 Auto-Erotic Death 525
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton and Burkhard Madea

29 Death in Abnormal Positions: Physical Restraint 528
John C. Hunsaker III

30 Sexual Homicide 539
Philip Beh

31 Medical Malpractice 545
Burkhard Madea

32 Special Issues Regarding Expert Evidence in Violent Death 562
Rainer Amberg, Burkhard Madea, Jørgen L. Thomsen, Martin Worm-Leonhard and Paolo Procaccianti

PART IV Sudden and Unexpected Death from Natural 597

33 Natural Causes of Sudden Death 599
Emanuela Turillazzi, Stefania Bello and Vittorio Fineschi

34 Postmortem Biochemistry as an Aid in Determining the Cause of Death 630
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton and L. Aurelio Luna

35 Sudden and Unexpected Deaths in Infants and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 647
Thomas Bajanowski and Mechtild M. Vennemann

PART V Clinical Forensic Medicine 679

36 Sexual Abuse 681
Cristina Cattaneo, Daniele Gibelli and Marina Ruspa

37 Non-Sexual Abuse in Children 702
Robert A. Minns, Burkhard Madea and Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

38 Intimate Partner and Domestic Violence 746
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

39 School Violence 751
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

40 Violence Against Homosexuals 757
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

41 Violence Against the Elderly 761
John C. Hunsaker III

42 Self-Harm 776
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

43 Age Estimation in Living Individuals 791
Andreas Schmeling

PART VI Forensic Psychiatry 811

44 Forensic Psychiatry 813
Alan R. Felthous and Henning Saß

PART VII Toxicology 829

45 Legal Aspects of Toxicology 831
Ilkka Ojanperä and Erkki Vuori

46 Epidemiology and Adverse Drug Reactions 840
Olaf H. Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos and Jennifer L. Pilgrim

47 Suspicion of Poisoning 845
Robert J. Flanagan, Graham R. Jones, Hans H. Maurer and Markus R. Meyer

48 Toxicological Analysis: Drug Screening and Confi rmation 866
Olaf H. Drummer and Dimitri Gerostamoulos

49 Issues Affecting Interpretation: Stability and Artefacts 873
Gisela Skopp

50 Toxicokinetics and Toxicogenetics 889
Markus R. Meyer and Hans H. Maurer

51 Toxicology of Specific Substances 900
Alan Wayne Jones, Frank Musshoff, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E. Schwaninger, Dimitri Gerostamoulos, Olaf H. Drummer, Gustav Drasch, Marie A. Balíková, Jochen Beyer, Helena Teixeira, Mario Thevis and Wilhelm Schänzer

PART VIII Traffi c Medicine 995

52 Driving Aptitude and Fitness to Drive 997
Günter Berghaus and Eva Schnabel

53 Effects of Cardiovascular Disease on Fitness to Drive 1011
Werner Jung

54 Effects of Vision and Visual Fields on Fitness to Drive 1024
Patrick Vivell

55 Effects of Epilepsy on Fitness to Drive 1033
Jürgen Bauer

56 Effects of Diabetes on Fitness to Drive 1036
Wulf Quester

57 Epidemiology and Causal Factors in Fitness to Drive 1044
Günter Berghaus

58 Effects of Alcohol on Fitness to Drive 1057
Alan Wayne Jones

59 Effects of Illegal Drugs on Fitness to Drive 1074
Frank Musshoff

60 Effects of Medicinal Drugs on Fitness to Drive 1087
Eef L. Theunissen, Kim P. C. Kuypers, Annemiek Vermeeren, Eric F. Vuurman and Johannes G. Ramaekers

61 Toxicological Markers of Chronic Alcohol Abuse 1099
Fritz Pragst

62 Traffic Accidents 1108
Heinz-Dieter Wehner and Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton

PART IX Identifi cation 1141

63 Forensic DNA Analysis 1143
Mechthild Prinz and Ruediger Lessig

64 Forensic Anthropology 1184
Cristina Cattaneo and Daniele Gibelli

65 Forensic Odontology 1193
Ruediger Lessig

PART X The Doctor and the Law 1205

66 The Doctor and the Law 1207
Brigitte Tag

PART XI Insurance Medicine 1239

67 Personal Injury Assessment 1241
Teresa Magalhães and Duarte Nuno Vieira

67.1 Introduction 1241

67.2 Aim of personal injury assessment and reparation 1242

67.3 General aspects for forensic medical assessment 1243

67.4 Specifics of forensic medical reports for personal injury assessment 1246

67.5 Conclusions 1251

Further Reading 1253
Burkhard Madea

Index 1257