Skip to main content

Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

David A. Cremers, Leon J. Radziemski

ISBN: 978-0-470-09301-6 June 2006 302 Pages


Starting from fundamentals and moving through a thorough discussion of equipment, methods, and techniques, this text provides a unique reference source for this important new analysis method. The authors use a combination of tutorial discussions ranging from basic principles up to more advanced descriptions along with extensive figures and photographs to clearly explain topics addressed in the text. It is intended that the data tables will be located within the Education section of

Provides a thorough but understandable discussion of the basic principles, instrumentation, methodology, and sampling procedures of the method based on atomic emission spectroscopy.

  • Presents a discussion of the many advantages of the method along with limitations, to provide the reader a balanced overview of capabilities of the method
  • Presents an overview of some real-world applications of the method
  • Provides an up-to-date list of references to LIBS literature and a unique list of element detection limits using a uniform analysis method


Acronyms, Constants, And Symbol.s

1. History.

1.1 Atomic optical emission spectrochemistry (OES).

1.2 Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

1.3 LIBS History 1960-1980.

1.4 LIBS History 1980-1990.

1.5 LIBS History 1990-2000.

1.6 Active Areas of Investigation, 2000-2002.


2. Basics of the LIBS plasma.

2.1 LIBS plasma fundamentals.

2.2 laser-Induced Breakdown.

2.3 laser ablation.

2.4 double or multiple pulse libs.

2.5 summary.


3. Apparatus fundamentals.

3.1 Basic LIBS apparatus.

3.2 Lasers.

3.3 Optical systems.

3.4 Methods of spectral resolution.

3.5 Detectors.

3.6 Detection system calibration.

3.7 Timing considerations.

3.8 Methods of LIBS deployment.


4. Determining LIBS analytical figures-of-merit.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Basics of LIBS measurements.

4.3 precision.

4.4 Calibration.

4.5 Detection limit.


5. Qualitative LIBS Analysis.

5.1 Identifying elements.

5.2 Material identification.

5.3 Process control.


6. Quantitative LIBS Analysis.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Geometric Sampling Parameters.

6.3 Other sampling considerations.

6.4. Particle size.

6.5 use of internal standardization.

6.6 Chemical Matrix effects.

6.7. Example of libs measurement: Impurities in Lithium Solutions.

6.8 Reported figures of merit for LIBS measurements.

6.9 Conclusions.



7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Conventional open path LIBS.

7.3 Stand-off LIBS using Femtosecond pulses.

7.4 Fiber optic LIBS.


8. Examples of recent LIBS fundamental research, instruments and novel applications.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 fundamentals.

8.3 calibration-free LIBS.

8.4 laser and spectrometer advances.

8.5 surface analysis.

8.6 Double pulse studies and applications.

8.7 Steel applications.

8.8 libs for biological applications.

8.9 nuclear reactor applications.

8.10 LIBS for space applications.



9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Expanding the understanding and capability of the libs process.

9.3 Widening the universe of libs applications.

9.4 Factors that will speed the commercialization of Libs.

9.5 conclusion.


APPENDIX A: Safety Considerations in LIBS.

A.1. safety plans.

A.2 Laser Safety.

A.3 Generation of Aerosols. 

A.4 laser pulse induced ignition.

APPENDIX B: LIBS Application Matrix.

APPENDIX C: LIBS Detection Limits.

C.1 detection limits from the literature.

C.2 uniform detection limits.

APPENDIX D: Major LIBS References.