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Handbook of Marine Craft Hydrodynamics and Motion Control

Thor I. Fossen

ISBN: 978-1-119-99149-6 May 2011 596 Pages


The technology of hydrodynamic modeling and marine craft motion control systems has progressed greatly in recent years. This timely survey includes the latest tools for analysis and design of advanced guidance, navigation and control systems and presents new material on underwater vehicles and surface vessels. Each section presents numerous case studies and applications, providing a practical understanding of how model-based motion control systems are designed.

Key features include:

  • a three-part structure covering Modeling of Marine Craft; Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems; and Appendices, providing all the supporting theory in a single resource
  • kinematics, kinetics, hydrostatics, seakeeping and maneuvering theory, and simulation models for marine craft and environmental forces 
  • guidance systems, sensor fusion and integrated navigation systems, inertial measurement units, Kalman filtering and nonlinear observer design for marine craft
  • state-of-the-art methods for feedback control
  • more advanced methods using nonlinear theory, enabling the user to compare linear design techniques before a final implementation is made.
  • linear and nonlinear stability theory, and numerical methods 
  • companion website that hosts links to lecture notes and download information for the Marine Systems Simulator (MSS) which is an open source Matlab/Simulink® toolbox for marine systems. The MSS toolbox includes hydrodynamic models and motion control systems for ships, underwater vehicles and floating structures

With an appropriate balance between mathematical theory and practical applications, academic and industrial researchers working in marine and control engineering aspects of manned and unmanned maritime vehicles will benefit from this comprehensive handbook. It is also suitable for final year undergraduates and postgraduates, lecturers, development officers, and practitioners in the areas of rigid-body modeling, hydrodynamics, simulation of marine craft, control and estimation theory, decision-support systems and sensor fusion.

Related Resources

About the Author xv

Preface xvii

List of Tables xix

I Marine Craft Hydrodynamics 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Classification of Models 6

1.2 The Classical Models in Naval Architecture 7

1.3 Fossen’s Robot-Like Vectorial Model for Marine Craft 12

2 Kinematics 15

2.1 Reference Frames 16

2.2 Transformations between BODY and NED 20

2.3 Transformations between ECEF and NED 34

2.4 Transformations between BODY and FLOW 39

3 Rigid-Body Kinetics 45

3.1 Newton–Euler Equations of Motion about CG 45

3.2 Newton–Euler Equations of Motion about CO 49

3.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion 51

4 Hydrostatics 59

4.1 Restoring Forces for Underwater Vehicles 59

4.2 Restoring Forces for Surface Vessels 62

4.3 Load Conditions and Natural Periods 68

4.4 Ballast Systems 74

5 Seakeeping Theory 81

5.1 Hydrodynamic Concepts and Potential Theory 82

5.2 Seakeeping and Maneuvering Kinematics 85

5.3 The Classical Frequency-Domain Model 90

5.4 Time-Domain Models including Fluid Memory Effects 96

5.5 Case Study: Identification of Fluid Memory Effects 104

6 Maneuvering Theory 109

6.1 Rigid-Body Kinetics 110

6.2 Potential Coefficients 111

6.3 Nonlinear Coriolis Forces due to Added Mass in a Rotating Coordinate System 115

6.4 Viscous Damping and Ocean Current Forces 122

6.5 Maneuvering Equations 128

7 Models for Ships, Offshore Structures and Underwater Vehicles 133

7.1 Maneuvering Models (3 DOF) 133

7.2 Autopilot Models for Heading Control (1 DOF) 142

7.3 DP Models (3 DOF) 152

7.4 Maneuvering Models Including Roll (4 DOF) 158

7.5 Equations of Motion (6 DOF) 167

8 Environmental Forces and Moments 187

8.1 Wind Forces and Moments 188

8.2 Wave Forces and Moments 199

8.3 Ocean Current Forces and Moments 221

II Motion Control 227

9 Introduction 229

9.1 Historical Remarks 229

9.2 The Principles of Guidance, Navigation and Control 232

9.3 Setpoint Regulation,Trajectory-Tracking and Path-Following Control 235

9.4 Control of Underactuated and Fully Actuated Craft 235

10 Guidance Systems 241

10.1 Target Tracking 242

10.2 Trajectory Tracking 246

10.3 Path Following for Straight-Line Paths 254

10.4 Path Following for Curved Paths 266

11 Sensor and Navigation Systems 285

11.1 Low-Pass and Notch Filtering 287

11.2 Fixed Gain Observer Design 292

11.3 Kalman Filter Design 296

11.4 Nonlinear Passive Observer Designs 310

11.5 Integration Filters for IMU and Global Navigation Satellite Systems 328

12 Motion Control Systems 343

12.1 Open-Loop Stability and Maneuverability 343

12.2 PID Control and Acceleration Feedback 365

12.3 Control Allocation 398

13 Advanced Motion Control Systems 417

13.1 Linear Quadratic Optimal Control 418

13.2 State Feedback Linearization 451

13.3 Integrator Backstepping 457

13.4 Sliding-Mode Control 519

Appendices 529

A Nonlinear Stability Theory 531

A.1 Lyapunov Stability for Autonomous Systems 531

A.2 Lyapunov Stability of Nonautonomous Systems 535

B Numerical Methods 541

B.1 Discretization of Continuous-Time Systems 541

B.2 Numerical Integration Methods 544

B.3 Numerical Differentiation 547

References 549

Index 567

Handbook of Marine Craft Hydrodynamics and Motion Control Visit the companion website to access a Matlab/Simulink toolbox, and full colour photos.
Thor I. Fossen's Website