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Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, 2nd Edition



Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, 2nd Edition

Antonio Luque (Editor), Steven Hegedus (Co-Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-97612-8 March 2011 1162 Pages


The most comprehensive, authoritative and widely cited reference on photovoltaic solar energy

Fully revised and updated, the Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Second Edition incorporates the substantial technological advances and research developments in photovoltaics since its previous release. All topics relating to the photovoltaic (PV) industry are discussed with contributions by distinguished international experts in the field.

Significant new coverage includes:

  • three completely new chapters and six chapters with new authors
  • device structures, processing, and manufacturing options for the three major thin film PV technologies
  • high performance approaches for multijunction, concentrator, and space applications
  • new types of organic polymer and dye-sensitized solar cells
  • economic analysis of various policy options to stimulate PV growth including effect of public and private investment

Detailed treatment covers:

  • scientific basis of the photovoltaic effect and solar cell operation
  • the production of solar silicon and of silicon-based solar cells and modules
  • how choice of semiconductor materials and their production influence costs and performance
  • making measurements on solar cells and modules and how to relate results under standardised test conditions to real outdoor performance
  • photovoltaic system installation and operation of components such as inverters and batteries.
  • architectural applications of building-integrated PV

Each chapter is structured to be partially accessible to beginners while providing detailed information of the physics and technology for experts. Encompassing a review of past work and the fundamentals in solar electric science, this is a leading reference and invaluable resource for all practitioners, consultants, researchers and students in the PV industry.

About the Editors.

List of Contributors.

Preface to the 2nd Edition.

1 Achievements and Challenges of Solar Electricity from Photovoltaics  (Steven Hegedus and Antonio Luque).

1.1 The Big Picture.

1.2 What is Photovoltaics?

1.3 Photovoltaics Today.

1.4 The Great Challenge.

1.5 Trends in Technology.

1.6 Conclusions.

2 The Role of Policy in PV Industry Growth: Past, Present and Future (John Byrne and Lado Kurdgelashvili).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Policy Review of Selected Countries.

2.3 Policy Impact on PV Market Development.

2.4 Future PV Market Growth Scenarios.

2.5 Toward a Sustainable Future.

3 The Physics of the Solar Cell (Jeffery L. Gray).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Fundamental Properties of Semiconductors.

3.3 Solar Cell Fundamentals.

3.4 Additional Topics.

3.5 Summary.

4 Theoretical Limits of Photovoltaic Conversion and New-generation Solar Cells (Antonio Luque and Antonio Martı).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Thermodynamic Background.

4.3 Photovoltaic Converters.

4.4 The Technical Efficiency Limit for Solar Converters.

4.5 Very-high-efficiency Concepts.

4.6 Conclusions.

5 Solar Grade Silicon Feedstock (Bruno Ceccaroli and Otto Lohne).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Silicon.

5.3 Production of Silicon Metal/Metallurgical Grade Silicon.

5.4 Production of Polysilicon/Silicon of Electronic and Photovoltaic Grade.

5.5 Current Silicon Feedstock to Solar Cells.

5.6 Requirements of Silicon for Crystalline Solar Cells.

5.7 Routes to Solar Grade Silicon.

5.8 Conclusions.

6 Bulk Crystal Growth and Wafering for PV (Hugo Rodriguez, Ismael Guerrero, Wolfgang Koch, Arthur L. Endros, Dieter Franke, Christian Haßler, Juris P. Kalejs and H. J. Moller).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Bulk Monocrystalline Material.

6.3 Bulk Multicrystalline Silicon.

6.4 Wafering.

6.5 Silicon Ribbon and Foil Production.

6.6 Numerical Simulations of Crystal Growth Techniques.

6.7 Conclusions.

7 Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules (Ignacio Tobıas, Carlos del Ca˜nizo and Jesus Alonso).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Crystalline Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material.

7.3 Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

7.4 Manufacturing Process.

7.5 Variations to the Basic Process.

7.6 Other Industrial Approaches.

7.7 Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules.

7.8 Electrical and Optical Performance of Modules.

7.9 Field Performance of Modules.

7.10 Conclusions.

8 High-efficiency III–V Multijunction Solar Cells (D. J. Friedman, J. M. Olson and Sarah Kurtz).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Applications.

8.3 Physics of III–V Multijunction and Single-junction Solar Cells.

8.4 Cell Configuration.

8.5 Computation of Series-connected Device Performance.

8.6 Materials Issues Related to GaInP/GaAs/Ge Solar Cells.

8.7 Epilayer Characterization and Other Diagnostic Techniques.

8.8 Reliability and Degradation.

8.9 Future-generation Solar Cells.

8.10 Summary.

9 Space Solar Cells and Arrays (Sheila Bailey and Ryne Raffaelle).

9.1 The History of Space Solar Cells.

9.2 The Challenge for Space Solar Cells.

9.3 Silicon Solar Cells.

9.4 III–V Solar Cells.

9.5 Space Solar Arrays.

9.6 Future Cell and Array Possibilities.

9.7 Power System Figures of Merit.

9.8 Summary.

10 Photovoltaic Concentrators (Gabriel Sala and Ignacio Anton).

10.1 What is the Aim of Photovoltaic Concentration and What Does it Do?

10.2 Objectives, Limitations and Opportunities.

10.3 Typical Concentrators: an Attempt at Classification.

10.4 Concentration Optics: Thermodynamic Limits.

10.5 Factors of Merit for Concentrators in Relation to the Optics.

10.6 Photovoltaic Concentration Modules and Assemblies.

10.7 Tracking for Concentrator Systems.

10.8 Measurements of Cells, Modules and Photovoltaic Systems in Concentration.

10.9 Summary.

11 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells via High-temperature and Intermediate-temperature Approaches (Armin G. Aberle and Per I. Widenborg).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Modelling.

11.4 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Intermediate-T Foreign Supporting Materials.

11.5 Conclusions.

12 Amorphous Silicon-based Solar Cells (Eric A. Schiff, Steven Hegedus and Xunming Deng).

12.1 Overview.

12.2 Atomic and Electronic Structure of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon.

12.3 Depositing Amorphous Silicon.

12.4 Understanding a-Si pin Cells.

12.5 Multijunction Solar Cells.

12.6 Module Manufacturing.

12.7 Conclusions and Future Projections.

13 Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells (William N. Shafarman, Susanne Siebentritt and Lars Stolt).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Material Properties.

13.3 Deposition Methods.

13.4 Junction and Device Formation.

13.5 Device Operation.

13.6 Manufacturing Issues.

13.7 The Cu(InGa)Se2 Outlook.

14 Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells (Brian E. McCandless and James R. Sites).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Historical Development.

14.3 CdTe Properties.

14.4 CdTe Film Deposition.

14.5 CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells.

14.6 CdTe Modules.

14.7 Future of CdTe-based Solar Cells.

15 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (Kohjiro Hara and Shogo Mori).

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Operating Mechanism of DSSC.

15.3 Materials.

15.4 Performance of Highly Efficient DSSCs.

15.5 Electron-transfer Processes.

15.6 New Materials.

15.7 Stability.

15.8 Approach to Commercialization.

15.9 Summary and Prospects.

16 Sunlight Energy Conversion Via Organics (Sam-Shajing Sun and Hugh O'Neill).

16.1 Principles of Organic and Polymeric Photovoltaics.

16.2 Evolution and Types of Organic and Polymeric Solar Cells.

16.3 Organic and Polymeric Solar Cell Fabrication and Characterization.

16.4 Natural Photosynthetic Sunlight Energy Conversion Systems.

16.5 Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

16.6 Artificial Reaction Centers.

16.7 Towards Device Architectures.

16.8 Summary and Future Perspectives.

17 Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics (Alan E. Delahoy and Sheyu Guo).

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Survey of Materials.

17.3 Deposition Methods.

17.4 TCO Theory and Modeling: Electrical and Optical Properties and their Impact on Module Performance.

17.5 Principal Materials and Issues for Thin Film and Wafer-based PV.

17.6 Textured Films.

17.7 Measurements and Characterization Methods.

17.8 TCO Stability.

17.9 Recent Developments and Prospects.

18 Measurement and Characterization of Solar Cells and Modules (Keith Emery).

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Rating PV Performance.

18.3 Current–Voltage Measurements.

18.4 Spectral Responsivity Measurements.

18.5 Module Qualification and Certification.

18.6 Summary.

19 PV Systems (Charles M. Whitaker, Timothy U. Townsend, Anat Razon, Raymond M. Hudson and Xavier Vallve).

19.1 Introduction: There is gold at the end of the rainbow.

19.2 System Types.

19.3 Exemplary PV Systems.

19.4 Ratings.

19.5 Key System Components.

19.6 System Design Considerations.

19.7 System Design.

19.8 Installation.

19.9 Operation and Maintenance/Monitoring.

19.10 Removal, Recycling and Remediation.

19.11 Examples.

20 Electrochemical Storage for Photovoltaics (Dirk Uwe Sauer).

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 General Concept of Electrochemical Batteries.

20.3 Typical Operation Conditions of Batteries in PV Applications.

20.4 Secondary Electrochemical Accumulators with Internal Storage.

20.5 Secondary Electrochemical Battery Systems with External Storage.

20.6 Investment and Lifetime Cost Considerations.

20.7 Conclusion.

21 Power Conditioning for Photovoltaic Power Systems (Heribert Schmidt, Bruno Burger and Jurgen Schmid).

21.1 Charge Controllers and Monitoring Systems for Batteries in PV Power Systems.

21.2 Inverters.

22 Energy Collected and Delivered by PV Modules (Eduardo Lorenzo).

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 Movement between Sun and Earth.

22.3 Solar Radiation Components.

22.4 Solar Radiation Data and Uncertainty.

22.5 Radiation on Inclined Surfaces.

22.6 Diurnal Variations of the Ambient Temperature.

22.7 Effects of the Angle of Incidence and of Dirt.

22.8 Some Calculation Tools.

22.9 Irradiation on Most Widely Studied Surfaces.

22.10 PV Generator Behaviour Under Real Operation Conditions.

22.11 Reliability and Sizing of Stand-alone PV Systems.

22.12 The Case of Solar Home Systems.

22.13 Energy Yield of Grid-connected PV Systems.

22.14 Conclusions.

23 PV in Architecture (Tjerk H. Reijenga and Henk F. Kaan).

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 PV in Architecture.

23.3 BIPV Basics.

23.4 Steps in the Design Process with PV.

23.5 Concluding Remarks.

24 Photovoltaics and Development (Jorge M. Huacuz, Jaime Agredano and Lalith Gunaratne).

24.1 Electricity and Development.

24.2 Breaking the Chains of Underdevelopment.

24.3 The PV Alternative.

24.4 Examples of PV Rural Electrification.

24.5 Toward a New Paradigm for Rural Electrification.