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Handbook of Polymers for Pharmaceutical Technologies, Volume 3, Biodegradable Polymers

Handbook of Polymers for Pharmaceutical Technologies, Volume 3, Biodegradable Polymers

Vijay Kumar Thakur (Editor), Manju Kumari Thakur (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-04143-6

Sep 2015

608 pages

$176.99

Description

Polymers are one of the most fascinating materials of the present era finding their applications in almost every aspects of life. Polymers are either directly available in nature or are chemically synthesized and used depending upon the targeted applications.Advances in polymer science and the introduction of new polymers have resulted in the significant development of polymers with unique properties.  Different kinds of polymers have been and will be one of the key in several applications in many of the advanced pharmaceutical research being carried out over the globe.

This 4-partset of books contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing different kinds of polymers with basic fundamentals and practicality for application in diverse pharmaceutical technologies. The volumes aim at explaining basics of polymers based materials from different resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the pharmaceutical industry. Each volume offer deep insight into the subject being treated.                                     

Volume 1: Structure and Chemistry
Volume 2: Processing and Applications
Volume 3: Biodegradable Polymers
Volume 4: Bioactive and Compatible Synthetic/Hybrid Polymers

Preface xix

1 Bioactive Polysaccharides of Vegetable and Microbial Origins: An Overview 1
Giuseppina Tommonaro, Annarita Poli, Paola Di Donato, Roberto Abbamondi Gennaro, Ilaria Finore and Barbara Nicolaus

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Anticarcinogenic Polysaccharides 3

1.3 Anti-inflammatory/Immunostimulating Polysaccharides 8

1.4 Antiviral Polysaccharides 13

1.5 Antioxidant Polysaccharides 17

1.6 Other Biotechnological Applications 21

1.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 23

Acknowledgments 23

Reference 24

2 Chitosan: An Emanating Polymeric Carrier for Drug Delivery 33
Priti Girotra and Shailendra Kumar Singh

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 Preparation of Chitosan 34

2.3 Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan 35

2.4 Biological Activities of Chitosan 36

2.5 Pharmaceutical Applications of Chitosan 39

2.6 Functionalization of Chitosan 49

2.7 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 49

Reference 51

3 Fungi as Sources of Polysaccharides for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications 61
Filomena Freitas, Christophe Roca and Maria A. M. Reis

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 The Fungal Cell 62

3.3 Polysaccharides Produced by Fungi 69

3.4 Production and Extraction of Polysaccharides from Fungi 77

3.5 Fungal Polysaccharides in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications 81

3.6 Commercial Exploitation of Fungal Polysaccharides in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications 89

3.7 Conclusion and Future Perspective 91

Reference 91

4 Environmentally Responsive Chitosan-based Nanocarriers (CBNs) 105
Ankit Jain and Sanjay K. Jain

4.1 Introduction 105

4.2 Graft Copolymerized CBNs 107

4.3 pH-Sensitive CBNs 109

4.4 Thermosensitive CBNs 111

4.5 pH-Sensitive and Thermosensitive CBNs 112

4.6 pH- and Ionic-Sensitive CBNs 113

4.7 Photosensitive CBNs 114

4.8 Electrical-Sensitive CBNs 115

4.9 Magneto-Responsive CBNs 115

4.10 Chemo-Sensitive CBNs 115

4.11 Biodegradation of Chitosan and Its Derivatives 116

4.12 Toxicity of CBNs 120

4.13 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 120

References 120

5 Biomass Derived and Biomass Inspired Polymers in Pharmaceutical Applications 127
Elisavet D. Bartzoka, Claudia Crestini and Heiko Lange

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 Biodegradable Polymers in Biomedical Applications – Relevant Aspects 129

5.3 Biodegradable Natural Polymers in Pharmaceutical Applications 133

5.4 Micro- and Nanocrystalline Natural Polymers and Fibrils – General Regulative Considerations 175

5.5 Concluding Remarks and Outlook 176

Reference 177

6 Modification of Cyclodextrin for Improvement of Complexation and Formulation Properties 205
Tapan K. Dash and V. Badireenath Konkimalla

Abbreviations 205

6.1 Introduction 206

6.2 Cyclodextrin and Its Degradation 206

6.3 Complexation by CDs and Release 207

6.4 Modifications and Scope with Respect to Pharmaceutical Application 208

6.5 Concluding Remarks 218

Acknowledgements 218

Reference 218

7 Cellulose-, Ethylene Oxide- and Acrylic-Based Polymers in Assembled Module Technology (Dome Matrix®) 225
Camillo Benetti, Paolo Colombo and Tin Wui Wong

7.1 Dome MatrixR Technology 225

7.2 Polymers for Controlled Drug Release 228

7.3 Cellulose Derivatives 230

7.4 Acrylic Acid Polymers 232

7.5 Polymethacrylates 234

7.6 Polyethylene Oxide 236

7.7 Conclusions 237

Acknowledgments 237

Reference 237

8 Structured Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery 243
Nishi Mody, Udita Agrawal, Rajeev Sharma and S. P. Vyas

8.1 Introduction 243

8.2 Classification 249

8.3 Degradation Processes in Biodegradable Polymers 254

8.4 Responsive Stimuli-Sensitive Polymers 260

8.5 Conclusion and Future Prospects 271

References 271

9 Current State of the Potential Use of Chitosan as Pharmaceutical Excipient 275
A. Raquel Madureira, Bruno Sarmento and Manuela Pintado

9.1 The World of Pharmaceutical Excipients 275

9.2 Chitosan 276

9.3 Activities Found for Chitosan 277

9.4 Properties of Chitosan 280

9.5 Applications as a Pharmaceutical Excipient 282

9.6 Conclusion 289

References 290

10 Modification of Gums: Synthesis Techniques and Pharmaceutical Benefits 299
Vikas Rana, Sunil Kamboj, Radhika Sharma and Kuldeep Singh

10.1 Introduction 299

10.2 Synthesis of Modified Gums 302

10.3 Characterization 320

10.4 Pharmaceutical Applications of Modified Gums 332

10.5 Conclusion and Future Prospective 354

Reference 355

11 Biomaterials for Functional Applications in the Oral Cavity via Contemporary Multidimensional Science 365
V. Tamara Perchyonok, Vanessa Reher, Nicolaas Basson and Sias Grobler

11.1 Introduction 365

11.2 Free Radical Formation, Antioxidants and Relevance in Health 366

11.3 Oral Diseases: Oxidative Stress and the Role of Antioxidant Defenses in the Oral Cavity 369

11.4 Biomaterials and Intelligent Design of Functional Biomaterials 371

11.5 In-Vitro Developments of Free Radical Defense Mechanisms and Drug-Delivery Systems 372

11.6 Practical In-Vitro Applications of Chitosan-Based Functional Biomaterial Prototypes in Dentistry 375

11.7 Conclusion 398

References 399

12 Role of Polymers in Ternary Drug Cyclodextrin Complexes 413
Renu Chadha, Madhu Bala, Parnika, Kunal Chadha and Maninder Karan

12.1 Introduction 413

12.2 Cyclodextrins (Cycloamyloses, Cyclomaltoses, Schardinger Dextrins) 414

12.3 Role of Biodegradable/Water-Soluble Polymers in Efficacy of Inclusion Complexes 416

12.4 Solubility, Dissolution and Bioavailability Enhancement: Case Studies 423

12.5 Conclusion 433

References 433

13 Collagen-Based Materials for Pharmaceutical Applications 439
Daniela Pamfil, Manuela Tatiana Nistor and Cornelia Vasile

13.1 Introduction 439

13.2 Collagen Structure and Its Properties 440

13.3 Preparation Methods of Collagen-Based Biomaterials 443

13.4 Pharmaceutical Applications of Collagen-Based Products 450

13.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 462

Acknowledgments 468

References 468

14 Natural Polysaccharides as Pharmaceutical Excipients 483
Nazire Deniz Yılmaz, Gülbanu Koyundereli Çılgı and Kenan Yılmaz

14.1 Introduction 483

14.2 Natural Polysaccharides 485

14.3 Conclusion 510

Reference 510

15 Structure, Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Applications of Biodegradable Polymers 517
Mazhar Ul-Islam, Shaukat Khan, Muhammad Wajid Ullah and Joong Kon Park

15.1 Introduction 517

15.2 History of Polymers 518

15.3 Concept of Biodegradability 522

15.4 Biodegradable Polymers and Their Classification 522

15.5 Biocompatibility of Biodegradable Polymers 528

15.6 Biodegradable Polymers in Pharmaceutical Applications 530

15.7 Development of Various Biodegradable Polymer Systems for Drug Delivery 532

15.8 Future Prospects 535

Acknowledgment 536

Reference 536

16 Preparation and Properties of Biopolymers: A Critical Review 541
Selvaraj Mohana Roopan, T. V. Surendra and G. Madhumitha

16.1 Introduction 541

16.2 Nature of Biopolymers 543

16.3 Common Biopolymers 544

16.4 Biopolymers in Drug Development 545

16.5 Biobased Polymers Production 548

16.6 Properties of Biopolymers 551

Acknowledgement 553

Reference 553

17 Engineering Biodegradable Polymers to Control Their Degradation and Optimize Their Use as Delivery and Theranostic Systems 557
Ilaria Armentano, Loredana Latterini, Nicoletta Rescignano, Luigi Tarpani, Elena Fortunati and Josè Maria Kenny

17.1 Introduction 557

17.2 Nanotechnology 559

17.3 Nanostructured Biodegradable Polymers 560

17.4 Design Strategies for Fluorescent Biodegradable Polymeric Systems 566

17.5 Conclusions and Perspectives 570

Reference 570

Index 577