Skip to main content

Handbook of Renewable Materials for Coloration and Finishing

Handbook of Renewable Materials for Coloration and Finishing

Mohd Yusuf (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-40784-3 July 2018 612 Pages

 E-Book

$199.99

Description

This unique handbook provides a vivid multidisciplinary dimension through technological perspectives to present cutting-edge research in the field of natural coloration and finishing. The 20 chapters are divided in to four parts: Substrates for coloration and finishing; renewable colorants and their applications; advanced materials and technologies for coloration and finishing; sustainability.

Among the topics included in the Handbook of Renewable Materials for Coloration and Finishing are:

  • The systematic discussion on the suitability, physical, chemical and processing aspects of substrates for coloration and finishing
  • Bio-colorant’s application as photosensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells
  • Animal based natural dyes
  • Natural dyes extraction and dyeing methodology
  • Application of natural dyes to cotton and jute textiles
  • Sol-gel flame retardant and/or antimicrobial finishings for cellulosic textiles
  • Rot resistance and antimicrobial finish of cotton khadi fabrics
  • Advanced materials and technologies for antimicrobial finishing of cellulosic textiles

Preface xix

Part I: Substrates for Coloration and Finishing 1

1 An Introduction to Textile Fibers: An Overview 3
Mohd Shabbir and Faqeer Mohammad

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Classification 4

1.2.1 Natural Fibers 5

1.2.2 Synthetic Fibers 5

1.2.3 Semi-Synthetic Fibers 6

1.3 Conclusion 6

References 7

2 Effect of Processing and Type of Mechanical Loading on Performance of Bio-Fibers and Bio-Composites 9
Vijay Chaudhary and Pramendra Kumar Bajpai

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Extraction of Bio-Fibers 10

2.3 Mechanical Loading 12

2.4 Tensile Test 14

2.5 Flexural Test 15

2.6 Impact Test 15

2.7 Tribological Performance 16

2.8 Conclusion 16

References 17

3 Mechanical and Chemical Structure of Natural Protein Fibers: Wool and Silk 19
Mohd Yusuf

3.1 Introduction 19

3.2 Wool 20

3.2.1 Physical Properties 20

3.2.2 Chemical Properties 21

3.2.3 Morphology 22

3.2.4 Chemical Structure 24

3.3 Silk 31

3.3.1 Physical properties 31

3.3.2 Chemical Properties 33

3.3.3 Morphology 34

3.3.4 Chemical Structure 36

3.4 Conclusion 38

References 38

Part II: Renewable Colorants and their Applications: Revolutionary Approach 41

4 Animal Based Natural Dyes: A Short Review 43
Shahid Adeel, Sana Rafi, Muhammad Abdul Mustaan, Mahwish Salman and Abdul Ghaffar

4.1 Introduction of Natural Dyes 44

4.2 Sustainability of Natural Dyes 45

4.3 Classification of Natural Dyes 46

4.4 Animal Based Natural Dyes 47

4.4.1 Cochineal 47

4.4.1.1 Polish Cochineal 49

4.4.1.2 Armenian Cochineal 50

4.4.2 Kermes 50

4.4.3 Lac Insect 51

4.4.4 Sea Snails 53

4.4.4.1 Bolinusbrandaris 53

4.4.4.2 Hexaplex trunculus 54

4.4.4.3 Stramonita haemastoma 54

4.5 Extraction Methodology 56

4.6 Application of Animal Based Dyes 60

4.6.1 Textile 60

4.6.2 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells 62

4.6.3 Food 63

4.6.4 Pharmaceuticals 64

4.6.5 Nano-technological Image 64

4.7 Future Prospects 65

4.8 Conclusion 66

Acknowledgment 66

References 66

5 Natural Dyes and Pigments: Extraction and Applications 75
Rym Mansour

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 Classification of Natural Dyes 77

5.2.1 Classification Based on Color 77

5.2.1.1 Red 77

5.2.1.2 Blue 77

5.2.1.3 Yellow 77

5.2.1.4 Green 78

5.2.1.5 Black and Brown 78

5.2.1.6 Orange 78

5.2.2 Classification Based on Chemical Constitution 78

5.2.2.1 Anthraquinone Dyes 78

5.2.2.2 Indigoid Dyes 79

5.2.2.3 Carotenoid Dyes 79

5.2.2.4 Flavonoid Dyes 79

5.2.2.5 Dihydropyran Dyes 79

5.2.3 Classification Based on Application 80

5.2.3.1 Mordant Dyes 80

5.2.3.2 Vat Dyes 80

5.2.3.3 Direct Dyes 80

5.2.3.4 Acid Dyes 81

5.2.3.5 Basic Dyes 81

5.2.3.6 Disperse Dyes 81

5.2.4 Classification Based on Origin 81

5.2.4.1 Plants 81

5.2.4.2 Minerals 82

5.2.4.3 Animals 82

5.3 Extraction of Natural Dyes 82

5.3.1 Extraction Methods 82

5.3.1.1 Aqueous Extraction 82

5.3.1.2 Acid and Alkali Extraction Process 83

5.3.1.3 Ultrasonic and Microwave Extraction 84

5.3.1.4 Fermentation 84

5.3.1.5 Enzymatic Extraction 85

5.3.1.6 Solvent Extraction 85

5.3.1.7 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 86

5.4 Natural Dyes Application 86

5.4.1 Textile, Medicinal and Herbal Applications 86

5.4.1.1 Quinones 87

5.4.1.2 Anthraquinones 87

5.4.1.3 Naphthoquinones 88

5.4.1.4 Anthocyanins 89

5.4.1.5 Usnic Acid 89

5.4.1.6 Tannins 90

5.4.2 Natural Dyes in Food Coloration 90

5.4.3 UV-protective Finishing 92

5.4.4 Insect Repellent Finishing 93

5.4.5 Natural Dyes in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells 94

5.5 Other Applications of Natural Dyes 95

5.6 Conclusion and Future Outlook 96

References 97

6 Lichen Derived Natural Colorants: History, Extraction, and Applications 103
Luqman Jameel Rather,, Salman Jameel Rather, Showkat Ali Ganie and Khursheed Ahmad Bhat

6.1 Introduction 103

6.2 History 105

6.3 Lichen Dyes and Industrial Revolution 106

6.4 Extraction 107

6.5 Dye Stuffs from Lichens 107

6.5.1 Lichen Dyestuffs: Orchils and Litmus 110

6.6 Yellowish, Brownish and Reddish Colorants from Lichen 110

6.7 Ways of Dyeing with Lichens 111

6.8 Future Prospectus and Conclusion 111

Acknowledgement 112

References 112

7 Chlorophylls as Pigment: A Contemporary Approach 115
Shafat Ahmad Khan, Mohd Yusuf, Pooja Agarwal and Lalit Prasad

7.1 Introduction 116

7.2 Molecular Structure and Physico-chemical Characterization 117

7.3 Coloring Aspects 119

7.4 Characterization and Quality Control 120

7.5 Conclusion and Future Outlook 121

References 122

8 Contemporary Revolutions in Natural Dyes: Extraction and Dyeing Methodology 125
Fazal-ur-Rehman, Shahid Adeel, Sana Rafi, Noman Habib, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Mohammad Zuber and Nasim Akhtar

8.1 Introduction 126

8.2 Pros and Cons of Natural Dyes 127

8.3 Classification of Natural Dyes 129

8.3.1 Plant Based Natural Dyes 129

8.3.1.1 Pomegranate 129

8.3.1.2 Australian Pine 130

8.3.1.3 Bush Grape 130

8.3.1.4 Butterfly Pea 130

8.3.1.5 Mugavu 131

8.3.1.6 Jackfruit 132

8.3.1.7 Larkspur 134

8.3.1.8 Tee Oil Plant 135

8.3.1.9 Chaste Tree 136

8.3.1.10 Chinese Sumac 137

8.3.1.11 Limoniastrum Monopetalum 137

8.3.1.12 Yerba Mate 137

8.3.1.13 Camphor Tree 138

8.3.1.14 Basil 139

8.3.1.15 Fennel 139

8.3.1.16 Indian Paper Plant 140

8.3.1.17 Guava 140

8.3.1.18 Scarlet Sage 141

8.3.1.19 Sandalwood 142

8.3.1.20 Centaury 142

8.4 Extraction Methodology 144

8.4.1 Conventional Methods 145

8.4.2 Modern Methods 146

8.5 Exploration of New Plants Using Modern Tools to Maintain Sustainability 150

8.5.1 Harmal 150

8.5.2 Saffron 152

8.5.3 Madder 152

8.5.4 Safflower 153

8.5.5 Arjun 154

8.5.6 Chicken Gizzard 156

8.5.7 Red Calico 156

8.5.8 Golden Duranta 157

8.5.9 Marigold 157

8.5.10 Milk Weed 159

8.5.11 Neem 160

8.6 Conclusion 161

Acknowledgment 161

References 161

9 A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacological and Coloring Potential of Lawsonia inermis 169
Mohd Yusuf

9.1 Introduction 169

9.2 Phytochemistry 171

9.2.1 Phenolics 171

9.2.1.2 Naphthoquinones 171

9.2.1.3 Naphthalenes 172

9.2.1.4 Acetylenes 173

9.2.1.5 Alkyl Phenones 174

9.2.1.6 Xanthones 175

9.2.1.7 Coumarins 175

9.2.1.8 Tannins 176

9.2.1.9 Lignans 176

9.2.1.10 Others 176

9.2.2 Terpenoids 178

9.2.3 Steroids 178

9.2.4 Alkaloids 178

9.2.5 Miscellaneous Compounds 179

9.3 Pharmacological Potential 181

9.4 Coloring Potential 182

9.5 Conclusion and Future Outlook 184

References 184

10 Sustainable Application of Natural Dyes in Cosmetic Industry 189
Shahid Adeel, Shazia Abrar, Shumaila Kiran,,Tahir Farooq, Tahsin Gulzar and Mubeen Jamal

10.1 Introduction 190

10.2 Classification of Natural Dyes 191

10.2.1 Sources of Origin 191

10.2.1.1 Plant Origin 191

10.2.1.2 Animal Origin 195

10.2.1.3 Mineral Origin 195

10.2.1.4 Microbial Origin 195

10.3 Application of Natural Dyes in Cosmetics 196

10.3.1 Natural Lip Cosmetics 196

10.3.2 Natural Hair Dyes 197

10.4 Methods of Application as Hair Colorant 199

10.5 Natural Dyes as Hair Colorant 200

10.5.1 Henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn) 200

10.5.2 Indigo (Indigoferatinctoria) 202

10.5.3 Shoe Flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) 203

10.5.4 Amla (EmblicaofficinalisLinn) 205

10.5.5 Beet (Beta Vulgaris) 206

10.6 Advantages/Merits 206

10.7 Disadvantages/Demerits 207

10.8 Conclusion 207

Acknowledgments 208

References 208

11 Application of Natural Dyes to Cotton and Jute Textiles: Science and Technology and Environmental Issues 213
Ashis Kumar Samanta

11.1 Introduction 214

11.2 Extraction of Color Solution from the Sources of Natural Dyes 216

11.3 Purification of Selected Natural Dyes 216

11.4 Testing and Characterization of Purified Natural Dyes Before its Application to Textiles 217

11.4.1 UV-VIS Spectral Analysis of Aqueous Extracted Solution of Natural Dyes 217

11.4.2 FTIR Spectral Analysis 217

11.4.3 Analysis of DSC-Thermo Grams 218

11.5 Mechanism of Complex Formation Amongst Dye-Mordant and Fiber for Fixation of Natural Dyes on Different Fibers 221

11.6 Technological Aspects of Natural Dyeing to Cotton and Jute: Effect of Different Mordants 226

11.6.2 Effect of Selective Single and Double Mordanting on Jute and Cotton Fabrics for Natural Dyeing 227

11.6.2 Effect of Dyeing Process Variables for Optimizing the Dyeing Conditions 245

11.7 Study of Dyeing Kinetics for Dyeing Jack fruit Wood on Cotton and Jute fabrics 254

11.7.2 Dye Affinity 255

11.7.3 Dyeing Absorption Isotherm 257

11.7.4 Heat (Enthalpy) of Dyeing 260

11.7.5 Entropy of Dyeing and Gibb’s Free Energy 261

11.8 Study of Compatibility of Binary and Ternary Mixture of Natural dyes to Obtain Compound Shade 262

11.9 Test of Compatibility for Selected Binary Mixture of Natural Dyes 263

11.9.2 Newer Proposed Method of Test of Compatibility (Method-II) 264

11.9 Some Recent Studies on Natural Dyes for Textiles 274

11.10 Conclusions 275

References 276

12 Bio-Colorants as Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) 279
Pooja Agarwal, Mohd Yusuf, Shafat Ahmed Khan and Lalit Prasad

12.1 Introduction 279

12.2 Operational Principle of the DSSCs 281

12.3 DSSC Components 283

12.3.1 Semiconductor Film Electrode 283

12.3.2 Electrolyte 285

12.3.2.1 Liquid Electrolyte 285

12.3.2.2 Solid State Electrolytes 287

12.3.2.3 Quasi-Solid Electrolyte 287

12.3.3 Counter Electrode 288

12.3.4 Photosensitizers 289

12.3.4.1 Metal Complex Sensitizer 289

12.3.4.2 Metal-Free Organic Sensitizer 290

12.3.4.3 Natural Sensitizer/Natural Dye/Natural Pigments 291

12.4 Conclusion and Future Outlook 297

References 298

Part III: Advanced Materials and Technologies for Coloration and Finishing 301

13 Advanced Materials and Technologies for Antimicrobial Finishing of Cellulosic Textiles 303
Nabil A. Ibrahim, Basma M. Eid and Faten H. H. Abdellatif

13.1 Cellulosic Fibers 303

13.2 Wet Processing of Cellulosic Textiles 304

13.2.1 Pre-treatment 304

13.2.2 Coloration 306

13.2.3 Finishing 306

13.3 Antimicrobial Finishing of Cellulosic Textiles 307

13.3.1 Criteria for Proper Antimicrobial Agents 310

13.3.2 Best Available Techniques 310

13.4 Traditional Antimicrobial Finishing Chemicals, Application Method, Disadvantages 311

13.4.1 Synthetic Antimicrobial Agents 311

13.4.1.1 Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 311

13.4.1.2 Poly (hexamethylenebiguanide) (PHMB) 312

13.4.1.3 N-Halamine Compounds 313

13.4.1.4 Triclosan 314

13.4.2 Natural Antimicrobial Agents 314

13.4.2.1 Chitosan 315

13.5 Advanced Antimicrobial Agents 320

13.5.1 Antimicrobial Agent Based on Natural Products 320

13.5.2 Advanced Antimicrobial Agents Based on Nano-materials 327

13.5.2.1 Silver Nanoparticles AgNPs 329

13.5.2.2 Tianium Dioxide Nanoparticle (TiO2NPs) 333

13.5.2.3 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) 335

13.5.2.4 Cuprousoxide Nanoparticle (Cu2ONPs) 335

13.5.3 Nan composites and Hybrid Materials 336

13.6 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Products 336

13.7 Conclusion and Future Prospects 336

Reference 345

14 Bio-macromolecules: A New Flame Retardant Finishing Strategy for Textiles 357
Giulio Malucelli

14.1 Introduction 357

14.2 The Role of Bio-macromolecules as Flame Retardant Systems: Structure-Property Relationships 363

14.2.1 Whey Proteins 364

14.2.2 Caseins 367

14.2.3 Hydrophobins 371

14.2.4 Nucleic Acids 374

14.2.5 Other Bio-macromolecules: A Quick Recent Overview 380

14.3 Current Limitations 381

14.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 382

Acknowledgements 382

Reference 383

15 Significant Trends in Nano Finishes for Improvement of Functional Properties of Fabrics 387
N. Gokarneshan and K. Velumani

15.1 Introduction 388

15.2 Significance of Nanotechnology 389

15.3 Application of Nanotechnology in Textiles 389

15.4 Nanotechnology for Improved Fabric Finishing 392

15.5 Problem Associated with Nanotechnology 393

15.6 Nano Safe Textile Finishes with Papaya Peel and Silver 393

15.6.1 Overview 393

15.6.2 Related Aspects 393

15.6.3 Analysis of UV Visible Spectra 394

15.6.4 Dynamic Light Scattering 395

15.6.5 Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Textile Material 396

15.7 Plasma Induced Finishes for Multifunctional Properties 397

15.7.1 Overview 397

15.7.2 Related Aspects 397

15.7.3 Ultra Violet Protection 398

15.7.4 Flame Retardant Properties 399

15.7.5 Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis 400

15.7.6 Morphology of Surface 401

15.7.7 Antibacterial Properties 401

15.7.8 Crease Recovery Angle 401

15.7.9 Surface Chemical Changes 402

15.7.10 Tensile Properties 403

15.8 Nano Finishes Adopting Green Approach 403

15.8.1 Overview 403

15.8.2 Related Aspects 403

15.8.3 Release of Silver Nano Particle 405

15.8.4 Anti-Microbial Activity 405

15.9 Multi Functional Nano Finish on Denim Fabrics 406

15.9.1 Overview 406

15.9.2 Related Aspects 407

15.9.3 Characterization of Nanoparticles 408

15.9.4 Characterization of Treated Fabric 408

15.10 Role of Silk Sericin in Nano Finishing with Silver Particles 410

15.10.1 Overview 410

15.10.2 Related Aspects 411

15.10.3 Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles 411

15.10.4 Importance of Sericin asCapping Agent 412

15.10.5 Application of Silver Nano Particles as Antibacterial Agent 413

15.11 Improvement in Coloration and Antimicrobial Properties in Silk Fabrics with Aqueous Binders 413

15.11.1 Overview 413

15.11.2 Related Aspects 414

15.11.3 Analysis of Polyurethane Acrylate 414

15.11.4 Influence of PUA Concentration on K/S Value 415

15.11.5 Influence of Titanium Dioxide Concentration on K/S Value 415

15.11.6 UV Protection 415

15.11.7 Antimicrobial Property 416

15.11.8 Wrinkle Resistance 417

15.11.9 Fiber Surface 417

15.11.10 Fastness Properties 417

15.12 Nanoparticles for Improving Flame Retardant Properties of Fabrics 418

15.13 Application of Herbal Synthesized Silver Nano Particles on Cotton Fabric 420

15.14 Conclusion 422

References 423

16 Rot Resistance and Antimicrobial Finish of Cotton Khadi Fabrics 435
Tapas Ranjan Kar

16.1 Introduction 436

16.2 Anti Microbial Treatment 439

16.3 Some Important Study on Eco-friendly Antimicrobial Finishing of Cotton Khadi Fabric 440

16.3.2 Reaction Scheme 445

16.3.3 Crease Recovery and Stiffness 453

16.3.4 Appearance Properties 455

16.4 Effect of Varying Concentration Level of Chitosan and PEG for Application of Mixture of Chitosan and PEG on Microbial and Other Properties of Cotton Khadi Fabric with CA and SHP as Mixed Catalyst and Their Optimization 455

16.5 Characterization of Control and Treated Cotton Fabrics by FTIR, TGA, and X-RD Analysis 460

16.5.1 Analysis of FTIR Spectra for Untreated and Treated Cotton Khadi Fabric with PEG and its Mixture 460

16.5.2 Characterization of Thermal Stability of the Control and Treated Fabric 463

16.5.3 X-ray Diffraction of Untreated and Treated Fabrics with CA and SHP as Catalyst 465

16.6 Study of Residual Antimicrobial Effect after Repeated Washing Cycles 466

16.7 Analysis of Surface Properties by SEM 467

16.8 Conclusion 467

16.8.1 Ranking Index of Different Treatments on Loss of Tenacity and Antimicrobial Reduction Percentage Values 468

Acknowledgement 469

Reference 469

17 Advanced Technologies for Coloration and Finishing Using Nanotechnology 473
Abdul Azeez Nazeer, Saravanan Dhandapani and Sudarshana Deepa Vijaykumar

17.1 Introduction 474

17.2 Nanoparticles in Dyes 474

17.2.1 Plasma Technology 475

17.2.1.1 Coloration of Plasma-Treated Polyester Fibers 476

17.2.1.2 Coloration of Plasma-Treated Wool Fibers 476

17.2.1.3 Coloration of Plasma-Treated Cotton Fibers 476

17.3 Nano Finishing 477

17.3.1 Hydrophobic Finishing 477

17.3.2 Antimicrobial Finishing 480

17.3.3 Self Cleaning Finishing 482

17.3.4 Flame Retardent 485

17.3.5 UV Protecting Finishing 487

17.3.6 Wrinkle Resistant 488

17.4 Encapsulation Technology 489

17.4.1 Application of Microcapsules on Textile Industry 495

17.5 Conclusion 497

References 497

18 Sol–Gel Flame Retardant and/or Antimicrobial Finishings for Cellulosic Textiles 501
Giulio Malucelli

18.1 Introduction 502

18.2 The Sol–Gel Process 504

18.2.1 Sol–gel Fully Inorganic Coatings 506

18.2.2 Phosphorus-Doped Sol–Gel Coatings 509

18.2.3 Smoke Suppressant Sol–Gel Coating Formulations 510

18.2.4 Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Sol–Gel Coatings 511

18.2.5 Antibacterial Effects Provided by Sol–Gel Coatings 513

18.3 Current Limitations 515

18.4 Conclusions and Future Outlook 515

References 516

Part IV: Sustainability 521

19 Sustainable Coloration and Value Addition to Textiles 523
S. Basak, Kartick K. Samanta, S. K. Chattopadhyay and P. Pandit

19.1 Introduction 524

19.2 Sustainable Coloration of Textile Materials 525

19.2.2 Naturally Colored Cotton 526

18.2.3 Natural Dye from Plants 527

19.2.4 Sustainable Synthetic Color 530

19.2.5 Easy Care Finishing of Textile Products 531

19.3 Antimicrobial Finishing of Textiles 532

19.4 Flame Retardant Finishing of Textile 535

19.5 UV Protective Textile 537

19.6 Mosquito, Insect and Moth Repellent Finishing of Textile 538

19.7 Irradiation-Induced Value Addition to Textiles 539

19.8 Enzyme-Based Textile Pretreatment 540

19.9 Bio-mimic Based Value Addition to Textile 541

19.10 Conclusion and Future Outlook 543

References 543

20 Interconnection Between Biotechnology and Textile: A New Horizon of Sustainable Technology 549
Aranya Mallick

20.1 Introduction 549

20.2 Influence of Bioprocess on Textile 550

20.2.1 Fibers and Polymers 551

20.2.1.1 Modified Cotton 551

20.2.1.2 Biopolymers 552

20.2.1.3 Thermoplastic Polymers Derived from Natural Sources 555

20.2.2 Pretreatment 557

20.2.2.1 Desizing 558

20.2.2.2 Scouring 559

20.2.2.3 Bleaching 559

20.2.2.4 Peroxide Killing 559

20.2.3 Dyes and Dyeing 560

20.2.3.1 Natural Dyes and Dyeing 560

20.2.3.2 Bacteria Derived Pigments 561

20.2.4 After or Post-treatment 561

20.2.5 Decolorization of Textile Dyes Waste 562

20.2.6 Biosurfactants 563

20.2.7 Antimicrobial Activities and the Tests 563

20.2.8 Textile Detergent 565

20.3 Influence of Textile on Biotechnology 565

20.3.1 Filtration 565

20.3.2 Immobilization 565

20.3.3 Protective Textile 567

20.3.3.1 Air Permeable Material 567

20.3.3.2 Semipermeable Material 567

20.3.3.3 Impermeable Material 567

20.3.3.4 Selective Permeable Membrane 568

20.4 Conclusion 568

References 568

Index 000