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Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology, 2nd Edition

Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology, 2nd Edition

Daphna Havkin-Frenkel (Editor), Faith C. Belanger (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-37732-0

Jul 2018, Wiley-Blackwell

528 pages

Description

An updated guide to the production, science, and uses of vanilla 

Vanilla is a flavor and fragrance in foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and a wealth of other products. Now in its second edition, the Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology provides a comprehensive and updated review of the science and technology used in these items’ production and supply. 

Featuring contributions from an international range of experts, this revised edition covers a multitude of topics, including agricultural production, global markets, analytical methods, sensory analysis, food and fragrance applications, organic farming and fair trade, botanical diseases, and novel uses. 

The Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology, Second Edition is a vital resource for producers, distributors, and scientists involved in vanilla’s growth and utilization, and offers readers:

  • A guide to the cultivation, extraction, analysis, DNA sequencing, and marketing of vanilla
  • Information on the production of vanilla in a range of countries such as Mexico, Australia, Costa Rica, and India
  • Guidelines on the quality control of vanilla beans and extracts
  • Information on fair trade and the future of vanilla

List of Contributors xix

Preface xxi

Part I Production of Vanilla – Agricultural Systems and Curing 1

1 Mexican Vanilla Production 3
Juan Hernandez-Hernández

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Cultivation Methods 5

1.3 Vanilla Propagation Techniques 8

1.4 Irrigation 9

1.5 Nutrition 10

1.6 Weed Control 11

1.7 Shade Management (Pruning of Support Trees) 11

1.8 Shoot Management – Looping 12

1.9 Shoot Management – Rooting 12

1.10 Main Vanilla Insect Pest 12

1.11 Main Vanilla Diseases 13

1.12 Flowering and Pollination 14

1.13 Harvesting 17

1.14 Green Vanilla Commercialization 19

1.15 Curing 19

1.16 Grading 21

1.17 Buyers 23

1.18 Export Volume 23

1.19 Prices 23

1.20 Aromatic Profile 23

1.21 Summary 24

References 24

2 Vanilla Diseases 27
Juan Hernandez-Hernández

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Root and Stem Rot (Fusarium Oxysporum f. Sp. Vanillae) 27

2.3 Black Rot (Phytophtora Sp.) 29

2.4 Anthracnose (Colletotrichum Sp.) 30

2.5 Rust (Uromyces Sp.) 31

2.6 Rotting of Recently Planted Cuttings 32

2.7 Yellowing and Shedding of Young Fruits 33

2.8 Viral Diseases 35

2.9 Damage by Adverse Climatic Factors 36

2.10 Damage from Sunburn 37

2.11 Hurricanes 38

References 39

3 Vanilla Production in Costa Rica 41
Elida Varela Quirós

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 History of Vanilla Production in Costa Rica 42

3.3 Vanilla Production – The Traditional System 45

3.4 Vanilla Production – The Intensive System 47

3.5 Propagation 48

3.6 Diseases and Pests 49

3.7 Vanilla Bean Processing 50

3.8 Conclusions 50

References 51

4 Atypical Flowering of Vanilla planifolia in the Region of Junín, Peru 53
Juan Hernández-Hernández

4.1 Preparation of the “Mother” Plant (Cuttings) 54

4.2 Planting Method 54

4.3 Nutrition 55

4.4 Irrigation 55

4.5 Pests, Disorders and Diseases 57

4.6 Flowering Period 59

4.7 Hand Pollination 60

4.8 Harvesting 61

4.9 Vanilla Curing 62

4.10 Final Comments 62

References 63

5 Vanilla Production in the Context of Culture, Economics, and Ecology of Belize 65
Nelle Gretzinger and Dawn Dean

5.1 Introduction 65

5.2 Discussion 78

Acknowledgments 79

References 82

6 Conservation and Sustainable Use of Vanilla Crop Wild Relatives in Colombia 85
Nicola S. Flanagan, Paul Chavarriaga, and Ana Teresa Mosquera-Espinosa

6.1 Introduction 85

6.2 Vanilla Crop Wild Relatives 86

6.3 Vanilla Species in the Wild 89

6.4 Conservation of Vanilla Crop Wild Relatives 95

6.5 Biotechnological Approaches for Vanilla Genetic Resource Conservation and Utilization 100

6.6 An Integrated Strategy for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Vanilla Crop Wild Relatives 101

References 102

7 The History of Vanilla in Puerto Rico: Diversity, Rise, Fall and Future Prospects 111
Paul Bayman

7.1 Introduction 111

7.2 Diversity of Wild Vanilla in Puerto Rico 111

7.3 Rise and Fall: The History of Vanilla Cultivation in Puerto Rico 112

7.4 Socioeconomic Factors Contributing to the Decline of Vanilla 114

7.5 Diseases and Decline 114

7.6 Future Prospects 118

Acknowledgements 118

References 118

8 Origins and Patterns of Vanilla Cultivation in Tropical America (1500–1900): No Support for an Independent Domestication of Vanilla in South America 121
Pesach Lubinsky, Gustavo A. Romero-González, Sylvia M. Heredia, and Stephanie Zabel

8.1 Introduction 121

8.2 The Vanilla Necklace 136

8.3 Summary 138

Acknowledgements 139

References 139

9 Vanilla Production in Australia 147
Richard Exley

9.1 Introduction 147

9.2 History 147

9.3 Species 148

9.4 Climatic Regions of Australia Suitable for Vanilla 148

9.5 Climatic Conditions in the Vanilla Growing Regions 149

9.6 Soil and Nutrients 150

9.7 Watering 150

9.8 Fertilizing 150

9.9 Propagation 150

9.10 Support 151

9.11 Light/Shade 152

9.12 Spacing 153

9.13 Training 154

9.14 Flowering, Fruit Set, Growth, and Maturation 154

9.15 Harvesting 155

9.16 Curing 155

9.16.1 Overview 155

References 156

10 Vanilla in Dutch Greenhouses: A Discovery – From Research to Production 157
Filip van Noort

10.1 Introduction 157

10.2 Review of Literature 157

10.3 Flowering 159

10.4 Varieties 161

10.5 Propagation 161

10.6 Feasibility and Conclusions 162

References 163

11 Establishing Vanilla Production and a Vanilla Breeding Program in the Southern United States 165
Alan H. Chambers

11.1 Introduction 165

11.2 Southern Florida Climate 165

11.3 Native and Naturalized Vanilla Species of South Florida 169

11.4 Establishing Vanilla Production in Southern Florida 173

11.5 Vanilla Breeding 175

11.6 Conclusions 178

References 178

12 In Vitro Propagation of Vanilla 181
Rebeca Alicia Menchaca García

12.1 Methods 182

12.2 Results and Discussion 183

12.3 Conclusions 187

References 188

13 Curing of Vanilla 191
Chaim Frenkel, Arvind S. Ranadive, Javier Tochihuitl Vázquez, and Daphna Havkin-Frenkel

13.1 Introduction 191

13.2 Botany of the Vanilla Pod 192

13.3 On-the-vine Curing Process in a Vanilla Pod 195

13.4 Off-the-vine Curing Process of Vanilla Beans 196

13.5 Activity of Hydrolytic Enzymes Occurring in a Curing Vanilla Pod 202

13.6 Activity of Oxidative Enzymes Occurring in a Curing Vanilla Pod 209

13.7 Vanilla Products 212

13.8 Summary and Conclusions 212

13.9 Addendum: Commercial Curing Methods of Green Vanilla Bean 213

References 216

14 Fair Trade – The Future of Vanilla? 223
Richard J. Brownell Jr

14.1 The Crisis 223

14.2 The Farmer 224

14.3 Fast Forward 226

14.4 Fair Trade – Background 226

14.5 Commodity Cycles 229

14.6 Issues 230

14.7 Conclusions 233

Part II Authentication and Flavor Analysis 237

15 Quality Control of Vanilla Beans and Extracts 239
Arvind S. Ranadive

15.1 Introduction 239

15.2 Quality Control of Vanilla Beans 239

15.3 Quality Control of Commercial Vanilla Products 249

15.4 Determination of Authenticity of Vanilla Extracts 254

15.5 Summary 259

Acknowledgement 259

References 259

16 Flavor, Quality, and Authentication 261
Patrick G. Hoffman and Charles M. Zapf

16.1 Introduction 261

16.2 Vanilla Flavor Analyses 262

16.3 Biochemistry and Genetic Research on Vanilla 266

16.4 Vanilla Quality and Authentication Analyses 267

16.5 Conclusion 277

References 279

17 Volatile Compounds in Vanilla 285
Stephen Toth, Keun Joong Lee, Daphna Havkin-Frenkel, Faith C. Belanger, and Thomas G. Hartman

17.1 Lexicon of Vanilla Aroma/Flavor Descriptors 285

References 345

18 A Comprehensive Study of Composition and Evaluation of Vanilla Extracts in US Retail Stores 349
Daphna Havkin-Frenkel, Faith C. Belanger, Debra Y.J. Booth, Kathryn E. Galasso, Francis P. Tangel, and Carlos Javier Hernández Gayosso

18.1 History 349

18.2 Uses of Vanilla in the Industry 349

18.3 Major Us Vanilla Companies 353

18.4 Introduction to the Study 353

18.5 Materials and Methods 353

18.6 Results and Discussion 354

18.7 Conclusion and Recommendation 363

References 365

19 Vanilla in Perfumery and Beverage Flavors 367
Felix Buccellato

19.1 Earliest Recorded Use of Vanilla 367

Reference 373

Part III Biology of Vanilla 375

20 Vanilla Phylogeny and Classification 377
Kenneth M. Cameron

20.1 Vanilloideae Among Orchids 381

20.2 Diversity Within Vanilloideae 381

20.3 Origins and Age of Vanilloideae 384

20.4 Diversity Within Vanilla 385

20.5 Systematic Conclusions and Implications 388

References 389

21 Molecular Analysis of a Vanilla Hybrid Cultivated in Costa Rica 391
Faith C. Belanger and Daphna Havkin-Frenkel

21.1 Methods 392

21.2 Results and Discussion 393

References 399

22 Root Cause: Mycorrhizal Fungi of Vanilla and Prospects for Biological Control of Root Rots 403
Paul Bayman, María del Carmen A. Gonzalez-Chávez, Ana T. Mosquera-Espinosa, and Andrea Porras-Alfaro

22.1 Introduction 403

22.2 Phylogenetic Diversity of Mycorrhizal Fungi of Vanilla 406

22.3 Mycorrhizal Fungi of Vanilla Stimulate Seed Germination and Seedling Growth 411

22.4 Can Mycorrhizal Fungi Protect Vanilla Plants from Pathogens? 414

22.5 Conclusions 417

References 418

23 Enzymes Characterized From Vanilla 423
Andrzej Podstolski

23.1 L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyse (Pal) and Cinnamate-4-Hydroxylase (C4h) 423

23.2 Chain Shortening Enzymes 424

23.3 4-Coumaric Acid 3-Hydroxylase (C3H) 427

23.4 O-Methyltransferase (OMT) 428

23.5 Benzyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Bad) 428

23.6 Glycosyltransferases (GTS) 429

23.7 β-Glycosyl Hydrolases and Curing 430

References 431

24 Vanillin Biosynthesis – Still not as Simple as it Seems? 435
Richard A. Dixon

24.1 Introduction 435

24.2 Multiple Pathways to Vanillin Based on Biochemistry? 438

24.3 Elucidation of Vanillin Biosynthesis via Molecular Biology? 440

References 442

25 Vanilla planifolia – The Source of the Unexpected Discovery of a New Lignin 447
Fang Chen and Richard A. Dixon

25.1 Introduction 447

25.2 Identification of C-lignin in V. planifolia 449

25.3 Identification of Genes Potentially Involved in Lignin and Vanillin Biosynthesis 451

25.4 C-Lignin Biosynthesis in Other Plants 452

25.5 Commercial Value of C-Lignin as a Novel Natural Polymer 453

References 454

Part IV Biotechnological Production of Vanillin 457

26 Biotechnology of Vanillin: Vanillin from Microbial Sources 459
Ivica Labuda

26.1 Introduction 459

26.2 Substrates 460

26.3 Microorganisms 470

26.4 Processes 477

26.5 Downstream Processing and Recovery 482

26.6 Conclusions 482

References 483

Index 489