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Hawaiian Volcanoes: Deep Underwater Perspectives

Hawaiian Volcanoes: Deep Underwater Perspectives


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 128.

In the summer of 1963, when a group of Japanese scientists arrived at the aged building of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, run by the U.S. Geological Survey, there began a program of cooperation and friendship between American and Japanese volcanologists that continues to the present. The late Professor Takeshi Minakami, a top volcano-physicist long involved in research at various volcanoes, including Asama, then the most active volcano in Japan, led the Japanese group. The time coincided with a changeover in Hawaii, from the pioneering volcanologic studies of Harold Stearns, Gordon Macdonald, and Jerry Eaton to more comprehensive research by younger volcanologists. The Japanese team was also fortunate enough to witness a rift zone eruption at Kilauea volcano (Alae eruption, July 1963), a direct, eye-opening encounter with a volcano plumbing system in action.

Shigeo Aramaki and Hajimu Kinoshita vii

Section 1 Progress in Deep Underwater Geology Around Hawaii

Introduction to Section 1
Jiro Naka 1

Deepwater Multibeam Sonar Surveys Along the Southeastern Hawaii Ridge: Guide to the CD-ROM
John R. Smith, Kenji Satake, and Kiyoshi Suyehiro 3

Submarine Landslides and Volcanic Features on Kohala and Mauna Kea Volcanoes
and the Hana Ridge, Hawaii
John R. Smith, Kenji Satake, Julia K. Morgan, and Peter W. Lipman 11

Deep-Sea Volcaniclastic Sedimentation Around the Southern Flank of Hawaii
Jiro Naka, Toshiya Kanamatsu, Peter W. Lipman, Thomas W. Sisson, Nohiro Tsuboyama,
Julia K. Morgan, John R. Smith, and Tadahide Ui 29

Magnetostratigraphy of Deep-Sea Sediments From Piston Cores Adjacent to the Hawaiian Islands:
Implication for Ages of Turbidites Derived From Submarine Landslides
Toshiya Kanamatsu, Emilio Herrero-Bervera, and Gary M. McMurtry 51

Eruption Style and Flow Emplacement in the Submarine North Arch Volcanic Field, Hawaii
David A. Clague, Kozo Uto, Kenji Satake, and Alice 5. Davis 65

Emplacement and Inflation Structures of Submarine and Subaerial Pahoehoe Lavas From Hawaii
Susumu Umino, Sumie Obata, Peter W. Lipman, John R. Smith, Tsugio Shibata, Jiro Naka, and Frank Trusdell 85

Section 2 Climax Stage Magmatism: Growth History of Kilauea Volcano and Its Instability

Introduction to Section 2
Peter W. Lipman 103

Structural Variability Along the Submarine South Flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii,
From a Multichannel Seismic Reflection Survey
Denise J. Hills, Julia K. Morgan, Gregory F. Moore, and Stephen C. Leslie 105

Volcanic Morphology of the Submarine Puna Ridge, Kilauea Volcano
Deborah K. Smith, Laura S. L. Kong, Kevin T M. Johnson, and Jennifer R. Reynolds 125

Petrological Systematics of Submarine Basalt Glasses From the Puna Ridge, Hawaii:
Implications for Rift Zone Plumbing and Magmatic Processes
Kevin T. M. Johnson, Jennifer R. Reynolds, Denys Vonderhaar, Deborah K. Smith, and Laura S. L. Kong 143

Ancestral Submarine Growth of Kilauea Volcano and Instability of Its South Flank
Peter W. Lipman, Thomas W. Sisson, Tadahide Ui, Jiro Naka, and John R. Smith 161

Submarine Alkalic Through Tholeiitic Shield-Stage Development of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii
Thomas W. Sisson, Peter W. Lipman, and Jiro Naka 193

Section 3 Giant Landslides in the Northeast of Oahu: When, Why and How?

Introduction to Section 3
Michael Garcia 221

Mapping of the Nuuanu and Wailau Landslides in Hawaii
James G. Moore and David A. Clague 223

Landslides on the Windward Flanks of Oahu and Molokai, Hawaii: SHINKAI 6500 Submersible Investigation
Hisayoshi Yokose 245

Major Element Geochemistry of Glasses in Turbidites as Source Indicators:
Implications for the Nuuanu and Wailau Giant Submarine Landslides
S. B. Sherman, M. O. Garcia, and E. Takahashi  263

Volcanic Breccia and Hyaloclastite in Blocks From the Nuuanu and Wailau Landslides, Hawaii
David A. Clague, James G. Moore, and Alice S. Davis 279

Geochemical and Petrological Characteristics of Nuuanu and Wailau Landslide Blocks
Ken Shinozaki, Zhong-Yuan Ren, and Eiichi Takahashi 297

Geochemical Evolution of Koolau Volcano, Hawaii
Ryoji Tanaka, Eizo Nakamura, and Eiichi Takahashi 311

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Tsunami Model of the Nuuanu and Wailau Giant Landslides, Hawaii
Kenji Satake, John R. Smith, and Ken Shinozaki 333

Section 4 The Hawaiian Plume and Magma Genesis

Introduction to Section 4
Eiichi Takahashi 347

Seismic Images of Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes
Dapeng Zhao, Fumiko Ochi, and Eiichi Takahashi 349

Heat-Flow Variations Over Hawaiian Swell Controlled by Near-Surface Processes, not Plume Properties
Marcia K McNutt 365

Noble Gas Systematics of the Hawaiian Volcanoes Based on the Analysis of Loihi, Kilauea and Koolau
Submarine Rocks
Ichiro Kaneoka, Takeshi Hanyu, Junji Yamamoto, and Yayoi N. Miura 373

Submarine Picritic Basalts from Koolau Volcano, Hawaii: Implications for Parental
Magma Compositions and Mantle Source
Michael O. Garcia 391

Melting Process in the Hawaiian Plume: An Experimental Study
Eiichi Takahashi and Katsuji Nakajima 403