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Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, 2nd Edition

Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, 2nd Edition

Renata Schiavo

ISBN: 978-1-118-41639-6

Oct 2013, Jossey-Bass

656 pages



Now in its second edition, Health Communication: From Theory to Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to theory, intervention design, current issues, and special topics in health communication. The book also represents a hands-on guide to program development, implementation, and evaluation. This second edition further emphasizes the importance of a people-centered and participatory approach to health communication interventions, which takes into account key social determinants of health as well as the interconnection of various health and social fields.  While maintaining a strong focus on the importance of behavioral, social, and organizational results as key outcomes of health communication interventions, this second edition also includes new or updated information, theoretical models, resources, and case studies on:

  • Health equity
  • Urban health
  • New media
  • Emergency and risk communication
  • Strategic partnerships in health communication
  • Policy communication and public advocacy
  • Cultural competence
  • Health literacy
  • The evaluation of health communication interventions

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Tables, Figures, Exhibits, and Numbered Boxes ix

Preface  xv

Acknowledgments xvii

The Author xxi

Introduction  xxiii

Part One: Introduction to Health Communication 1

Chapter 1 What Is Health Communication? 3

In This Chapter 3

Defining Health Communication 4

Health Communication in the Twenty-First Century: Key Characteristics and Defining Features 9

The Health Communication Environment 22

Health Communication in Public Health, Health Care, and Community Development 23

The Role of Health Communication in the Marketing Mix 25

Overview of Key Communication Areas 26

The Health Communication Cycle 28

What Health Communication Can and Cannot Do 29

Key Concepts 31

For Discussion and Practice 32

Key Terms 32

Chapter 2 Current Health Communication Theories and Issues 33

In This Chapter 33

Use of Communication Models and Theories: A Premise 34

Key Theoretical Influences in Health Communication 35

Select Models for Strategic Behavior and Social Change Communication 57

Other Theoretical Influences and Planning Frameworks 62

Current Issues and Topics in Public Health and Health Care: Implications for Health Communication 64

Key Concepts 81

For Discussion and Practice 82

Key Terms 82

Chapter 3 Culture and Other Influences on Conceptions of Health and Illness 83

In This Chapter  83

What Is Culture?  84

Approaches in Defining Health and Illness 85

Understanding Health in Different Contexts: A Comparative Overview 88

Gender Influences on Health Behaviors and Conceptions of Health and Illness 91

Health Beliefs Versus Desires: Implications for Health Communication 94

Cultural Competence and Implications for Health Communication 97

Key Concepts  99

For Discussion and Practice 99

Key Terms 100

Part Two: Health Communication Approaches and Action Areas 101

Chapter 4 Interpersonal Communication 103

In This Chapter 103

The Dynamics of Interpersonal Behavior 104

Social and Cognitive Processes of Interpersonal Communication 106

Community Dialogue as an Example of Interpersonal Communication at Scale  111

The Power of Personal Selling and Counseling 112

Communication as a Core Clinical Competency 116

Implications of Interpersonal Communication forTechnology- Mediated Communications 128

Key Concepts 129

For Discussion and Practice 131

Key Terms 132

Chapter 5 Mass Media and New Media Communication, and Public Relations 133

In This Chapter 133

Health Communication in the New Media Age: What Has Changed and What Should Not Change 134

The Media of Mass Communication and Public Relations 138

Public Relations Defined: Theory and Practice 139

Mass Media, Health-Related Decisions, and Public Health 149

New Media and Health 157

Reaching the Underserved with Integrated New Media Communication 170

Mass Media– and New Media–Specific Evaluation Parameters 171

Key Concepts 174

For Discussion and Practice 176

Key Terms 177

Chapter 6 Community Mobilization and Citizen Engagement 179

In This Chapter 179

Community Mobilization and Citizen Engagement: A Bottom- Up Approach 180

Community Mobilization as a Social Process 182

Engaging Citizens in Policy Debates and Political Processes 188

Implications of Different Theoretical and Practical Perspectives for Community Mobilization and Citizen Engagement Programs 190

Impact of Community Mobilization on Health-Related Knowledge and Practices 194

Key Steps of Community Mobilization Programs 203

The Case for Community Mobilization and Citizen Engagement in Risk and Emergency Communication 212

Key Concepts 216

For Discussion and Practice 217

Key Terms 218

Chapter 7 Professional Medical Communications 219

In This Chapter 219

Communicating with Health Care Providers: A Peer-to-Peer Approach 220

Theoretical Assumptions in Professional Medical (Clinical) Communications 224

How to Influence Health Care Provider Behavior: A Theoretical Overview 226

Key Elements of Professional Medical Communications

Programs 228

Overview of Key Communication Channels and Activities 235

Using IT Innovation to Address Emerging Needs and Global Health Workforce Gap 237

Prioritizing Health Disparities inClinicalEducation to Improve Care: The Role of Cross-Cultural Health Communication 239

Key Concepts 240

For Discussion and Practice 242

Key Terms 242

Chapter 8 Constituency Relations and Strategic Partnerships in Health Communication 243

In This Chapter 243

Constituency Relations: A Practice-Based Definition 244

Recognizing the Legitimacy of All Constituency Groups 246

Constituency Relations: A Structured Approach 247

Strategies to Develop Successful Multisectoral Partnerships 251

Key Concepts 260

For Discussion and Practice 261

Key Terms 262

Chapter 9 Policy Communication and Public Advocacy 263

In This Chapter  263

Policy Communication and Public Advocacy as Integrated Communication Areas 264

Communicating with Policymakers and Other Key Stakeholders 267

The Media of Public Advocacy and Public Relations 271

Influencing Public Policy in the New Media Age 274

Key Concepts 277

For Discussion and Practice 278

Key Terms 278

Part Three: Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Health Communication Intervention 279

Chapter10 Overview of the Health Communication Planning Process 281

In This Chapter 281

Why Planning Is Important 283

Approaches to Health Communication Planning 285

The Health Communication Cycle and Strategic Planning Process 287

Key Steps of Health Communication Planning 289

Elements of an Effective Health Communication Program  295

Establishing the Overall Program Goal: A Practical Perspective 299

Outcome Objectives: Behavioral, Social, and Organizational 300

Key Concepts 303

For Discussion and Practice 305

Key Terms 306

Chapter11 Situation and Audience Analysis 307

In This Chapter 307

How to Develop a Comprehensive Situation and Audience

Analysis 308

Organizing, Sharing, and Reporting on Research Findings 333

Common Research Methodologies: An Overview 335

Key Concepts 353

For Discussion and Practice 354

Key Terms 354

Chapter12 Identifying Communication Objectives

and Strategies 355

In This Chapter 355

How to Develop and Validate Communication Objectives 356

Outlining a Communication Strategy 364

Key Concepts 372

For Discussion and Practice 372

Key Terms 373

Chapter13 Designing and Implementing an Action Plan 375

In This Chapter 375

Definition of an Action (Tactical) Plan 376

Key Elements of an Action (Tactical) Plan 379

Integrating Partnership and Action Plans 398

Planning for a Successful Program Implementation 400

Key Concepts 404

For Discussion and Practice 405

Key Terms  405

Chapter14 Evaluating Outcomes of Health Communication

Interventions 407

In This Chapter 407

Evaluation as a Key Element of Health Communication Planning 408

Overview of Key Evaluation Trends and Strategies: Why,

What, and How We Measure 409

Integrating Evaluation Parameters That Are Inclusive of Vulnerable and Underserved Populations 425

EvaluatingNewMedia–Based Interventions: Emerging Trends

and Models 426

Monitoring: An Essential Element of Program Evaluation  430

Linking Outcomes to a Specific Health Communication

Intervention 432

Evaluation Report 434

Key Concepts 437

For Discussion and Practice 439

Key Terms  440

Part Four: Case Studies and Lessons from the Field 441

Chapter15 Health Communication in the United States: Case Studies and Lessons from the Field 443

In This Chapter 443

From Theory to Practice: Select Case Studies from the United States 444

Emerging Trends and Lessons 464

Key Concepts  465

For Discussion and Practice 466

Key Term 466

Chapter16 Global Health Communication: Case Studies and Lessons from the Field 467

In This Chapter 467

From Theory to Practice: Select Case Studies on Global Health Communication 468

Emerging Trends and Lessons 490

Key Concepts 492

For Discussion and Practice 493

Key Terms 493

Appendix A Examples of Worksheets and Resources on Health

Communication Planning 495

Appendix B Sample Online Resources on Health Communication 509

Glossary 523

References 539

Name Index 593

Subject Index 601