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Health Physics: Radiation-Generating Devices, Characteristics, and Hazards

Health Physics: Radiation-Generating Devices, Characteristics, and Hazards

Joseph John Bevelacqua

ISBN: 978-3-527-69434-1 April 2016 800 Pages

 E-Book

$172.99

Description

The book bridges the gap between existing health physics textbooks and reference material needed by a practicing health physicist as the 21st century progresses. This material necessarily encompasses emerging radiation-generating technologies, advances in existing technology, and applications of existing technology to new areas. The book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate science and engineering courses. It is also be a useful reference for scientists and engineers.

Preface XXI

Acknowledgments XXV

A Note on Units XVII

Part I Overview of Health Physics: Radiation-Generating Devices, Characteristics, and Hazards 1

1 Introduction to Twenty-First Century Health Physics 3

1.1 Overview of Twenty-First Century Health Physics 3

1.2 Health Physics Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities 3

1.3 Forecast of Possible Future Issues 6

References 12

Part II Nuclear Fuel Cycle Issues 15

2 Nuclear Fuel Cycle 17

2.1 Overview 17

2.2 Basic Fuel Cycle Options 18

2.3 Overview of the Twentieth-Century Nuclear Fuel Cycle 18

2.3.1 Uranium Fuel Cycle 19

2.4 Twenty-First-Century Changes and Innovations 31

2.5 Nuclear Proliferation 75

2.6 Twentieth-Century Waste Disposal Options and Solutions 81

2.7 Twenty-First-Century Fuel Cycle Options 86

References 103

Part III Accidents and Nuclear Events 109

3 Nuclear Accidents and Radiological Emergencies 111

3.1 Overview 111

3.2 Design Considerations 111

3.3 Major Reactor Accidents 131

3.3.2 Chernobyl 133

3.4 Emergency Preparedness Programs 142

3.5 Accident Phases 151

3.6 Emergency Preparedness Effectiveness 152

3.7 Reprocessing Waste Tanks 162

3.8 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Accident 169

References 180

4 Nuclear Terrorist Events Including INDs and RDDs 187

4.1 Overview 187

4.2 Nuclear Weapons Types 188

4.3 Nuclear Event Types 190

4.4 Accident Assumptions 211

4.5 Radiation Protection Considerations 226

4.6 Mass Casualty Considerations 240

4.7 Stakeholder Involvement 240

4.8 Contamination Remediation 241

References 253

Part IV Nuclear Medicine and Public Health 259

5 Nuclear Medicine 261

5.1 Overview 261

5.2 General Nuclear Medicine Categories 262

5.3 Side Effects from Radiation Therapy 275

5.4 Emerging Therapy Approaches 277

5.6 Nanotechnology 304

5.7 Other Considerations 330

References 338

6 Public Radiation Exposures and Associated Issues 345

6.1 Overview 345

6.2 Public Radiation Exposures and Associated Effects 345

6.3 Summary of Doses to the US Population 370

6.4 Public Dose Limits 370

6.5 Risk Communication 371

6.6 Public Involvement in Nuclear Licensing 377

6.7 Litigation 386

6.8 Environmental Protection 386

6.9 Unresolved Issues Associated with Major Reactor Accidents 389

References 409

Part V Regulatory Issues, Limitations, and Challenges 415

7 Regulatory Considerations 417

7.1 Overview 417

7.2 Twentieth-Century Regulatory Challenges 418

7.3 Twenty-First-Century Regulatory Challenges 426

7.4 Proactive Vice Reactive Philosophy 432

7.5 Accident Analysis and Risk Assessment 433

7.6 Licensing Process and Technical Basis 435

7.7 National and International Standards 436

7.8 Accidents Affecting Multiple Nations 439

7.9 Emergency Response 448

7.10 Emerging Issues 451

7.11 US Regulatory Improvements 471

7.12 Future Power Reactor Directions and Challenges 478

References 490

Part VI Solutions to Problems 497

Solutions 499

Part VII Appendices 661

A Selected Data on Radionuclides of Health Physics Interest 663

A.1 Introduction 663

A.2 Alpha Decay 663

A.3 Beta Decay 663

A.4 Gamma Emission 668

A.5 Gamma Emission 668

A.6 Electron Capture 668

A.7 Positron Emission 668

A.8 Spontaneous Fission 668

References 669

B Production Equations in Health Physics 671

B.1 Introduction 671

B.2 Theory 671

B.3 Examples of Production Equations 674

B.3.1 Activation 674

B.3.2 Demineralizer Activity 675

B.3.3 Surface Deposition 675

B.3.4 Release of Radioactive Material into a Room 676

B.4 Alternative Derivation of the Production Equation 676

B.5 Conclusions 677

References 677

C Key Health Physics Relationships 679

C.1 Introduction 679

C.2 Notation and Terminology 679

C.3 Key Relationships 682

C.3.1 Activation 682

C.3.2 Activity 682

C.3.3 Attenuation 683

C.3.4 Duty Factor 683

C.3.5 External Dosimetry 683

C.3.6 Internal Dosimetry 684

C.3.7 Dispersion Relationships 684

C.3.8 Electromagnetic Relationships 684

C.3.9 Mechanics Relationships 686

C.3.10 Relationships 687

C.3.11 Production Equations 687

C.3.12 Quantum Mechanics 687

References 688

D Internal Dosimetry 689

D.1 Introduction 689

D.2 Overview of Internal Dosimetry Models 689

D.3 MIRD Methodology 691

D.4 ICRP Methodology 693

D.5 Biological Effects 693

D.6 ICRP 26/30 and ICRP 60/66/30 Terminology 696

D.7 ICRP 26 and ICRP 60 Recommendations 697

D.7.1 Calculation of Internal Dose Equivalents Using ICRP 26/30 698

D.7.2 Calculation of Equivalent and Effective Doses Using ICRP 60/66/30 699

D.8 ICRP 103/66/100 Methodology 701

D.8.1 Radiation Effects, Tissue Weighting Factors, and Radiation Weighting Factors 701

D.8.2 Sex Averaging 702

D.8.3 Assessment of Occupational Dose 703

D.9 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) 704

D.9.1 Absorption 705

D.9.2 Particle Sizes 705

D.9.3 Additional Model Details 706

D.10 Human Alimentary Tract Model (HATM) 706

D.10.1 Absorption to Blood 707

D.10.2 Dose Calculations 710

D.10.3 Model Dependence 710

References 710

E Health Physics-Related Computer Codes 713

E.1 Overview 713

E.2 Code Descriptions 713

E.2.1 CAP-88 (http://www.epa.gov/radiation/assessment/ CAP88/index.html) 713

E.2.2 COMPASS (http://orise.orau.gov/environmental-assessments- health physics/resources/marssim.aspx) 714

E.2.3 COMPLY (http://www.epa.gov/radiation/assessment/ comply.html#download) 714

E.2.4 DCAL (http://www.epa.gov/radiation/assessment/ dcal.html#download) 714

E.2.5 DWUCK/CHUCK/MERCURY (https://rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/psr/ psr5/psr-546.html) 715

E.2.6 EGS Code System (http://rcwww.kek.jp/research/ egs/egs5.html) 715

E.2.7 ENDF (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/exfor3/endf00.htm) 715

E.2.8 FLUKA (http://www.fluka.org/) 716

E.2.9 GENII-LIN (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/ccc/ccc7/ ccc-728.html) 716

E.2.10 HOTSPOT (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/mis/mis0/ mis-009.html) 716

E.2.11 IDD–SAM (www.bevelacquaresources.com) 716

E.2.12 IMBA (www.hpa-radiationservices.org.uk/services/imba) 717

E.2.13 ISO-PC (https://rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/ccc/ccc6/ccc-636.html) 717

E.2.14 JENDL (http://wwwndc.tokai-sc.jaea.go.jp/jendl/jendl.html) 717

E.2.15 LISE++ (http://lise.nscl.msu.edu/lise.html) 718

E.2.16 MACCS2 (http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/regulatory/research/ comp-codes.html) 718

E.2.17 MARS (http://www-ap.fnal.gov/MARS/) 718

E.2.18 MCNP (http://mcnp-green.lanl.gov/index.html) 718

E.2.19 MCNPX (http://mcnpx.lanl.gov/) 719

E.2.20 MICROSHIELD®(http://www.radiationsoftware.com/ mshield.html) 719

E.2.21 MICROSKYSHINE®(http://www.radiationsoftware.com/mskyshine.html) 719

E.2.22 MIDAS (http://www.absconsulting.com/midas.cfm) 719

E.2.23 MULTIBIODOSE (http://www.multibiodose.eu/ software.html) 720

E.2.24 OLINDA/EXM (http://olinda.vueinnovations.com/olinda) 720

E.2.25 PRESTO (http://www.epa.gov/radiation/assessment/ presto.html) 720

E.2.26 RADTRAD(http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/ccc/ccc8/ ccc-800.html) 720

E.2.27 RASCAL (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/ccc/ccc7/ ccc-783.html) 721

E.2.28 RESRAD (http://web.ead.anl.gov/resrad/home2/) 721

E.2.29 SCALE 5 (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/ccc/ ccc7/ccc-725.html) 721

E.2.30 SKYSHINE-KSU(http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/ccc/ ccc6/ccc-646.html) 722

E.2.31 SPAR (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/ccc/ ccc2/ccc-228.html) 722

E.2.32 TRACE (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/psr/ psr4/psr-481.html) 722

E.2.33 VARSKIN (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/ccc/ ccc7/ccc-781.html) 723

E.2.34 VSM (http://www.doseinfo-radar.com/RADARSoft.html) 723

E.2.35 VSP (http://vsp.pnnl.gov/) 723

E.3 Code Utilization 723

E.4 Code Documentation 724

References 724

F Systematics of Charged Particle Interactions with Matter 727

F.1 Introduction 727

F.2 Overview of External Radiation Sources 727

F.2.1 Cancer Therapy 727

F.2.2 Accelerator Transmutation of High-Level Waste 728

F.2.3 Space Tourism 729

F.3 Tissue-Absorbed Dose from a Heavy Ion or Proton Beam 730

F.4 Determination of Total Reaction Cross-Section 730

F.5 Calculational Considerations 731

References 731

G Angular Absorbed Dose Dependence of Heavy Ion Interactions 733

G.1 Introduction 733

G.2 Basic Theory 733

G.3 Differential Scattering Cross-Section 734

G.4 Model Calculations 735

References 735

H Basis for Radiation Protection Regulations 737

H.1 Overview 737

H.2 Risk 737

H.3 Basic Epidemiology 739

H.4 Dose–Response Relationships 740

H.5 Risk Models 741

H.6 BEIR VII Uncertainties 742

H.7 Doubling Dose 743

H.8 Probability of Causation 743

H.9 Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act 745

H.10 Future Dose Limits 746

H.10.1 LNT Hypothesis 746

H.10.1.1 Arguments Supporting the LNT Hypothesis 747

H.10.1.2 Arguments against the LNT Hypothesis 747

H.10.2 Threshold Dose limits 748

H.10.3 Radiation Carcinogenesis 749

H.11 Future Regulations 749

References 749

Index 753