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Health for All? Agriculture and Nutrition, Bioindustry and Environment: Analyses and Recommendations

Health for All? Agriculture and Nutrition, Bioindustry and Environment: Analyses and Recommendations

The World Life Sciences Forum - BioVision (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-61951-1

Mar 2008

522 pages

Select type: O-Book


The definitive report and only print publication to come from the World Life Sciences Forum -- the most important global event in the biosciences, backed by the United Nations and the expertise of 20 Nobel Laureates. The contributors are representatives from global companies in pharma/health, biotechnology, food and consulting/finance and numerous UN organizations such as WHO, FAO, UNESCO, UNEP, as well as NGOs and national authorities. Three volumes each discuss the most important areas in global development: human health, agriculture and nutrition, bioindustry and environment.
The result is a cross-disciplinary and international insight packed with facts not available from any other source. It includes the official recommendations from the interactive discussion sessions held during the Forum.
Of benefit to professionals and decision makers in diverse fields, and essential reading for stem cell researchers and stock brokers, drug manufacturers and politicians. In short: everyone who is professionally involved with human livelihood and well-being.
Volume 1.


Module I: Is the Investment in New Therapies Paying Off ?

Introduction (Dominique Lecourt).

1 New Frontiers in Cancer Treatment (Zhu Chen).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Cancer Treatment.

1.3 Target-based Therapies.

1.4 Lung Cancer 26

1.5 Outlook 27

2 Eradication of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Is it Possible and Cost-Beneficial? (Ciro A. de Quadros).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Disease Eradication.

2.3 Launching Eradication Programs.

2.4 Examples of Disease Eradication.

2.5 The Costs of Immunization.

2.6 Future Prospects.

2.7 Summary.

3 Incentives in Policy Reforms Necessary to Stimulate Activity (Peter B. Corr).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 High Attrition: High Costs.

3.3 Availability, Accessibility, Affordability.

3.4 Innovation and Partnership.

3.5 The Economic Value of Health.

3.6 The “10–90 Gap”.

3.7 Incentives to Stimulate Innovation.

3.8 Treatment or Prevention?

General Bibliography and Suggested Reading.

Module II: Developing, Manufacturing and Using Vaccines: Which one is most Critical?

Introduction (Dominique Lecourt).

4 Developing Affordable Vaccines (Gustav Nossal).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 The “Danger” Signals.

4.3 Bioengineered Vaccines.

4.4 Biotechnological “Tricks” in Vaccine Production.

4.5 Needle-free Immunization.

4.6 Genome Mining.

4.7 Vaccine Affordability.

4.8 The Next Challenge.

4.9 Conclusion.

5 Why “Affordable” Vaccines are Not Available to the Poorest Countries (Jacques-François Martin).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Political Commitment.

5.3 Access.

5.4 Financial Resources.

5.5 A Look into the Future.

6 Meeting the Challenges of Manufacture and Delivery of Affordable Vaccines (Jean Stephenne).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Vaccine Research and Development.

6.3 Vaccine Manufacture.

6.4 The Vaccine Marketplace.

6.5 Vaccine Availability.

6.6 Conclusions.

General Bibliography and Suggested Reading.

Module III: Bioethics: What is the Tradeoff Between Principles and People?

Introduction (Dominique Lecourt).

7 Are First-World Ethics Applicable to the Third World? (Philippe Kourilsky).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 The “90–10 Gap”.

7.3 Vaccine Production.

7.4 The Ethics of Regulatory Standards.

7.5 Challenging Regulatory Standards.

7.6 Future Strategies.

8 Does Biotechnology Serve Africa’s Needs? (Hoosen Mohamed Coovadia).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Biotechnology in Africa.

8.3 The March of AIDS.

8.4 Antiretroviral Drugs.

8.5 Is Biotechnology Succeeding in Africa?

8.6 Conclusions.

9 New Vaccines with Global Impact: The Issue of Access (Peter Paradiso).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Vaccine Development.

9.3 Vaccine Supply.

9.4 Disease Burden and Vaccine Efficacy.

9.5 Ethical Perspectives.

9.6 Vaccine Demand and Capacity.

9.7 Affordability and Sustainability.

General Bibliography and Suggested Reading.

Key Messages.

Synthesis and Recommendations (Gerald T. Keusch, Kul Chandra Gautam, and George R. Siber).

1 Basic Facts.

2 Key Concerns.

3 Call for Action.

3.1 Old Vaccines.

3.2 Recent Vaccines.

3.3 Vaccines to Be Developed.

Volume 2.


Module I: Agriculture: Livelihood, Politics and Sustainability.

Introduction (Dominique Lecourt).

1 Agricultural Research to Improve Human Nutrition (Per Pinstrup-Andersen).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 The Green Revolution.

1.3 The World Food Goals.

1.4 Hidden Hunger and Obesity.

1.5 Dietary Change.

1.6 Agricultural Research and Policy: Can they Improve Nutrition?

1.7 Bio-fortification.

1.8 Agricultural Research and Nutrition Goals.

1.9 Factors Influencing Food Demand.

1.10 Summary.

2 How Can Agriculture and Trade Contribute to Sustainable Livelihoods for All? (Philip Bloomer).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 The Global Trade Rules.

2.3 Investments in Scientific and Technological Innovation in Agriculture.

2.4 Summary.

3 Plant Biotechnology: A Contribution to Sustainable Agriculture (Bernward Garthoff).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 The Impact of Plant Biotechnology.

3.3 Environmental Responsibility.

3.4 Societal Benefits.

3.5 Summary.

General Bibliography and Suggested Reading.

Module II: Access to Food for All.

Introduction (Dominique Lecourt)

4 Four Theses on Agriculture, Nutrition and Sustainable Development (Klaus Ammann).

4.1 Thesis 1: Risk.

4.2 Thesis 2: Following Up.

4.3 Thesis 3: Re-think Communication.

4.4 Thesis 4: Poverty Alleviation.

4.5 Summary.

5 Is GMO Over-regulation Costing Lives? (Ingo Potrykus).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Bio-fortification: Golden Rice.

5.3 The Potential of Golden Rice.

5.4 GMO Over-regulation: Does it Cost Lives?

5.5 Genome Alterations and Plant Breeding.

5.6 Rational Regulation.

5.7 The Effect of GMO Over-regulation.

5.8 Summary.

6 How to Make the Global Food Marketplace Work Better (Rafael Rangel-Aldao).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 The Food Global Marketplace.

6.3 Market Supply.

6.4 Market Forces.

6.5 Market Trends.

6.6 A Self-organizing Market?

General Bibliography and Suggested Reading.

Module III: Feeding 9 Billion People by 2050.

Introduction (Dominique Lecourt).

7 Feeding the Nine Billion: The Challenge to Science (Peter Raven).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 World Population Growth.

7.3 Cultivation Areas.

7.4 Biodiversity and Poverty.

7.5 Genetic Engineering.

7.6 Global Warming.

7.7 How Many Planets?

7.8 The Way Forward.

8 Feeding the Nine Billion: The Challenge to Society (Florence Wambugu).

8.1 Africa Harvest.

8.2 Starvation in Africa.

8.3 Food Costs.

8.4 Resources Management.

8.5 The Aims of the African People.

8.6 African Trading Links.

8.7 Networks.

8.8 The United Nations Task Force Strategy.

8.9 Crop Productivity.

8.10 Private Sector Initiatives: The Case of TC Bananas.

8.11 The Whole-value Chain Approach.

9 Feeding the Nine Billion: The Challenge to the Marketplace (Richard Flavell).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Industrial Sector Involvement.

9.3 Nutrition and Genetic Modification.

9.4 Genetic Manipulation.

9.5 Public–Industry Partnerships.

9.6 Intellectual Property.

9.7 The Way Forward.

General Bibliography and Suggested Reading.

Key Messages.

Synthesis and Recommendations (Mike Gale, Raymond C. Offenheiser, F. Guillaume Bastiaens).

1 The Parameters.

2 The Potential Benefits of Biotechnology.

3 Call for Action.

3.1 Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs).

3.2 Education.

3.3 Communication.

3.4 Knowledge Transfer and Access for All.

3.5 The Need to Create an Enabling Institutional Environment.

4 Market Failures.

Volume 3.


Module I: Industrial Biotechnology: Hopes, Fears and Challenges.

Introduction (Dominique Lecourt).

1 The Challenges for Biotechnology Posed by Human-driven Changes (Kenneth N. Timmis).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Rising to the Challenge.

1.3 Biodiversity.

1.4 Biodiversity – A Hidden Treasure?

1.5 Metagenomics.

1.6 New Metabolic Diversity.

1.7 Conclusion.

2 Social Acceptance of New Bioprocesses (Martin Godbout).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Social Acceptance of New Bioprocesses.

2.3 The Challenge.

2.4 Solutions.

2.5 Examples.

2.6 Conclusion.

3 White Biotechnology: Science, Fiction and Reality (Alfred Hackenberger).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Outline of White Biotechnology.

3.3 Relevance of White Biotechnology for the Chemical Industry.

3.4 Achievements of White Biotechnology.

3.5 Limitations of White Biotechnology.

3.6 Conclusion.

General Bibliography and Suggested Reading.

Module II: Climate and Health.

Introduction (Dominique Lecourt).

4 Climate and Health: Predicting the Spread and Risk of Infectious Disease (Terry L. Yates).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Background.

4.3 Hantaviruses.

4.4 Biodiversity.

4.5 Human Risk.

4.6 Environmental Factors.

4.7 The Importance of Biodiversity.

4.8 Conclusion.

5 Climate Change and Human Health: the Sharp End of “Sustainability” (Tony McMichael).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Global Warming.

5.3 Climate and Human Health.

5.4 Environmental Changes.

5.5 Examples.

5.6 Conclusion.

6 White Biotechnology – For the Benefit of Climate and the Environment (Steen Riisgaard).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 The Lecitase Example.

6.3 Enzyme Technology.

6.4 Biodiversity.

6.5 Implementation.

6.6 Conclusion.

General Bibliography and Suggested Reading.

Module III: New Energy Development.

Introduction (Dominique Lecourt).

7 How Can the Environment Benefit from Bioindustry Innovations? (Jean-Jacques Bienaimé).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 The Biobased Economy.

7.3 Benefits of the Biobased Economy.

7.4 Development.

7.5 Ethanol Production.

7.6 Biomass Conversion.

7.7 Policy Issues.

7.8 Conclusion.

8 New Energy Development: Competing Priorities of Food Security and Biofuels (Abel J. J. Rwendeire).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Energy Utilization.

8.3 Biomass.

8.4 Alternative Sources of Energy.

8.5 Conclusion.

9 Environmental Genomics (J. Craig Venter).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Initial Studies.

9.3 Sampling the Ocean.

9.4 Sorcerer II Expedition.

9.5 Protein Families and Gene Pools.

9.6 The Air Genome Project.

9.7 Conclusion.

General Bibliography and Suggested Reading.

Key Messages.

Synthesis and Recommendations (Rita Colwell, Michael Oborne, Feike Sijbesma).

1 The Rationale Behind White Biotechnology.

2 The Situation Today.

3 The Concerns.

4 The Future.