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High Efficiency RF and Microwave Solid State Power Amplifiers

High Efficiency RF and Microwave Solid State Power Amplifiers

Paolo Colantonio, Franco Giannini, Ernesto Limiti

ISBN: 978-0-470-74655-4

Jul 2009

514 pages



Do you want to know how to design high efficiency RF and microwave solid state power amplifiers?

Read this book to learn the main concepts that are fundamental for optimum amplifier design. Practical design techniques are set out, stating the pros and cons for each method presented in this text. In addition to novel theoretical discussion and workable guidelines, you will find helpful running examples and case studies that demonstrate the key issues involved in power amplifier (PA) design flow.

Highlights include:

  • Clarification of topics which are often misunderstood and misused, such as bias classes and PA nomenclatures.
  • The consideration of both hybrid and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs).
  • Discussions of switch-mode and current-mode PA design approaches and an explanation of the differences.
  • Coverage of the linearity issue in PA design at circuit level, with advice on low distortion power stages.
  • Analysis of the hot topic of Doherty amplifier design, plus a description of advanced techniques based on multi-way and multi-stage architecture solutions.

High Efficiency RF and Microwave Solid State Power Amplifiers is:

  • an ideal tutorial for MSc and postgraduate students taking courses in microwave electronics and solid state circuit/device design;
  • a useful reference text for practising electronic engineers and researchers in the field of PA design and microwave and RF engineering.

With its unique unified vision of solid state amplifiers, you won’t find a more comprehensive publication on the topic. 


About the Authors.


1 Power Amplifier Fundamentals.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Definition of Power Amplifier Parameters.

1.3 Distortion Parameters.

1.4 Power Match Condition.

1.5 Class of Operation.

1.6 Overview of Semiconductors for PAs.

1.7 Devices for PA.

1.8 Appendix: Demonstration of Useful Relationships.

1.9 References.

2 Power Amplifier Design.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Design Flow.

2.3 Simplified Approaches.

2.4 The Tuned Load Amplifier.

2.5 Sample Design of a Tuned Load PA.

2.6 References.

3 Nonlinear Analysis for Power Amplifiers.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Linear vs. Nonlinear Circuits.

3.3 Time Domain Integration.

3.4 Example.

3.5 Solution by Series Expansion.

3.6 The Volterra Series.

3.7 The Fourier Series.

3.8 The Harmonic Balance.

3.9 Envelope Analysis.

3.10 Spectral Balance.

3.11 Large Signal Stability Issue.

3.12 References.

4 Load Pull.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Passive Source/Load Pull Measurement Systems.

4.3 Active Source/Load Pull Measurement Systems.

4.4 Measurement Test-sets.

4.5 Advanced Load Pull Measurements.

4.6 Source/Load Pull Characterization.

4.7 Determination of Optimum Load Condition.

4.8 Appendix: Construction of Simplified Load Pull Contours through Linear Simulations.

4.9 References.

5 High Efficiency PA Design Theory.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Power Balance in a PA.

5.3 Ideal Approaches.

5.4 High Frequency Harmonic Tuning Approaches.

5.5 High Frequency Third Harmonic Tuned (Class F).

5.6 High Frequency Second Harmonic Tuned.

5.7 High Frequency Second and Third Harmonic Tuned.

5.8 Design by Harmonic Tuning.

5.9 Final Remarks.

5.10 References.

6 Switched Amplifiers.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 The Ideal Class E Amplifier.

6.3 Class E Behavioural Analysis.

6.4 Low Frequency Class E Amplifier Design.

6.5 Class E Amplifier Design with 50% Duty-cycle.

6.6 Examples of High Frequency Class E Amplifiers.

6.7 Class E vs. Harmonic Tuned.

6.8 Class E Final Remarks.

6.9 Appendix: Demonstration of Useful Relationships.

6.10 References.

7 High Frequency Class F Power Amplifiers.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Class F Description Based on Voltage Wave-shaping.

7.3 High Frequency Class F Amplifiers.

7.4 Bias Level Selection.

7.5 Class F Output Matching Network Design.

7.6 Class F Design Examples.

7.7 References.

8 High Frequency Harmonic Tuned Power Amplifiers.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Theory of Harmonic Tuned PA Design.

8.3 Input Device Nonlinear Phenomena: Theoretical Analysis.

8.4 Input Device Nonlinear Phenomena: Experimental Results.

8.5 Output Device Nonlinear Phenomena.

8.6 Design of a Second HT Power Amplifier.

8.7 Design of a Second and Third HT Power Amplifier.

8.8 Example of 2nd HT GaN PA.

8.9 Final Remarks.

8.10 References.

9 High Linearity in Efficient Power Amplifiers.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Systems Classification.

9.3 Linearity Issue.

9.4 Bias Point Influence on IMD.

9.5 Harmonic Loading Effects on IMD.

9.6 Appendix: Volterra Analysis Example.

9.7 References.

10 Power Combining.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Device Scaling Properties.

10.3 Power Budget.

10.4 Power Combiner Classification.

10.5 The T-junction Power Divider.

10.6 Wilkinson Combiner.

10.7 The Quadrature (90◦) Hybrid.

10.8 The 180◦ Hybrid (Ring Coupler or Rat-race).

10.9 Bus-bar Combiner.

10.10 Other Planar Combiners.

10.11 Corporate Combiners.

10.12 Resonating Planar Combiners.

10.13 Graceful Degradation.

10.14 Matching Properties of Combined PAs.

10.15 Unbalance Issue in Hybrid Combiners.

10.16 Appendix: Basic Properties of Three-port Networks.

10.17 References.

11 The Doherty Power Amplifier.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Doherty’s Idea.

11.3 The Classical Doherty Configuration.

11.4 The ‘AB-C’ Doherty Amplifier Analysis.

11.5 Power Splitter Sizing.

11.6 Evaluation of the Gain in a Doherty Amplifier.

11.7 Design Example.

11.8 Advanced Solutions.

11.9 References.