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High-Pressure Research: Application to Earth and Planetary Sciences

High-Pressure Research: Application to Earth and Planetary Sciences

Yasuhiko Syono (Editor), Murli H. Manghnani (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66392-9

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

530 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 67.

The U.S.-Japan seminar in high-pressure research related to earth sciences was conceived by Professors S. Akimoto (Japan) and M. H. Manghnani (U.S.) to provide opportunities for interchangech of ideas and discussion on the research carried out in both countries. The seminars, held every five years since the first seminar in Hawaii in 1976, have played a significant role in promoting communications amongst high pressure research communities in Japan and the U.S. as well as other countries. During these 15 years, high-pressure research in mineral physics has acquired increased recognition among geophysicists as a subject that is vital to the understanding of the formation and evolution of the Earth. Progress in high pressure research has enabled us to achieve experimentally the pressures and temperatures of the interior Earth and other planetary interiors.

1. Generation of High Pressure and Temperature

1.1 Multi-Anvil System

A New High Pressure and High Temperature Apparatus with the Sintered Diamond Anvils for Synchrotron Radiation Use
O. Shitnomura, IV. Utsutnh T. Taniguchh T. Kikegawa and T. Nagashitna 3

Characterization of Stress, Pressure, and Temperaturien SAM85, A DIA Type High Pressure Apparatus
D. J. l'Veidner, M. T. Vaughan, J. Ko, Y. Wang, X. Liu, A. Yeganeh-Haerh, R. E. Pacalo and Y. Zhao 13

Characterization of Sample Environmenitn a Uniaxial Split-Sphere Apparatus
R. C. Liebermann and Y. Wang 19

Double-Stage Multi-Anvil System with a Sintered Diamond Anvil for X-Ray Diffraction Experiment at
High Pressures and Temperatures
T. Kato, E. Ohtani, N. Kamaya, O. Shimomura and T. Kikegawa 33

High Pressure and High Temperature Generation Using Sintered Diamond Anvils
W. Utsumi, T. Yagh K. Leinenweber, O. Shitnomura and T. Taniguchi 37

A Performance Test for WC Anvils for Multianvil Apparatus and Phase Transformations in Some
Aluminous Minerals up to 28 GPa
T. Irifune, Y. Adachi, K. Fujino, E. Ohtani, A. Yoneda and H. Sawatnoto 43

1.2 Diamond Anvil Cell Technique

A Laser Heating System for Diamond Anvil Using CO2 Laser
T. Yagi and d. Susaki 51

Phase Transitionsin a 500 kbar-3000 K Gas Apparatus
R. Boehler and A. Chopelas 55

Hydrothermal Studies in a Diamond Anvil Cell: Pressure Determination Using the Equation of State of H20
A. H. Shen, W. A. Bassett and I-M. Chou 61

2. Measurements of Physical and Chemical Properties

Advances in Calorimetric Techniques for High Pressure Phases
L. Topor and A. Navrotsky 71

Characterization of Crystalline and Amorphous Silicates Quenched from High Pressure by 29SiMAS NMR Spectroscopy
M. Kanzaki, J. F. Stebbins and X. Xue 89

Raman Spectroscopy of High Pressure MgSiO3 Phases Synthesized in a CO2 Laser Heated Diamond Anvil Cell: Perovskite and Clinopyroxene
A. Chopelas and R. Boehler 101

Raman and Brillouin Scattering Studies of Hydrogen Sulfide at High Pressures up to 23 GPa
H. Shimizu, K. Takasaki and S. Sasaki 109

Polycrystals of High-Pressure Phases of Mantle Minerals: Hot-Pressing and Characterization of Physical
Properties
G. D. Gwanmesia and R. C. Liebermann 117

Shock-Compressed  State of Powders Characterized by Various In-Situ and Textural Studies
K. Kondo 137

3. Elasticity and Equation-of-State in Relevance to the Earth's Mantle Differential Finite-Strain Equation of State
R. Jeanloz 147

Elastic Constants, Equations of State and Thermal Diffusivity at High Pressure
J. Zaug, E. Abramson, J. M. Brown and L. J. Slutsky 157

Progress in High-Pressure Ultrasonic Interferometry, the Pressure Dependence of Elasticity of Mg2SiO4
Polymorphs and Constraints on the Composition of the Transition Zone of the Earth's Mantle
S. M. Rigden, G. Gwanmesia, I. Jackson and R. C. Liebermann 167

Constraints on Lower Mantle Composition f rom P-V-T Measurements of (Fe,Mg)SiO3-Perovskite and
(Fe,Mg)O
R. J. Hemley, L. Stixrude, Y. Fei and H. K. Mao 183

Elasticity and Equation of State of Perovskite: Implications for the Earth's Lower Mantle
D. J. Weidner and Y. Zhao 191

Lateral Variations in Lower Mantle Seismic Velocity
T. S. Duffy and T. J. Ahrens 197

Pressure Derivatives of Elastic Constants of Single C rystal Forsterite
A. Yoneda and M. Morioka 207

Ionic Radius-Bond Strength Systematics,  Ionic Compressibilities, and an Application to (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Perovskites
Y. Kudoh, C. T. Prewitt, L. W. Finger and E. Ito 215


4. High Pressure Behavior of Silicates

4.1 Phase Changes in the Upper Mantle

The Effect of Nonhydrostatic Stress on the a -> b and a -> y Olivine Phase Transformations
H. W. Green, II, T. E. Young, D. Walker and C. H. Scholz 229

TEM Studies on the Olivine to Modified Spinel Transformationin Mg2SiO4
K. Fujino and T. Irifune 237

Phase Transitionsin a Komatiite-Rock at High Pressures and High Temperatures
L. C. Ming, M. Madon, M. H. Manghnani and L-J. Wang 245

Effect of Phase Transformations on the Dynamics of the Descending Slab
E. Ito and H. Sato 257

Rheological Structure of a Subduction Zone: Application of High P-T Viscous and Anelastic Properties of Mantle Rocks
H. Sato 263

4.2 Hydrogen in Silicate Minerals

Crystal-Chemistry of High-Pressure Hydrous Magnesium Silicates
C. T. Prewitt and L. W. Finger 269

The System MgO-SiO2-CO2-H20 at High Pressure: A Preliminary Investigation of CO2 Concentration in
Mantle Fluids
T. Katsura and E. Ito 275

Hydrogen Analysis of Mantle Olivine by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
M. Kurosawa, H. Yurimoto, K. Matsumoto and S. Sueno 283

A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Hydrogen in High Pressure Mineral Assemblages
Q. Williams 289

A Spectroscopic Study of the High-Pressure Behavior of the O4H4 Substitution in Garnet
E. Knittle, A. Hathorne, M. Davis and Q. Williams 297

4.3 Melting and Elemental Partition

Exchange o f Fe2+ and Mg2+ between Olivine and Clinopyroxene at 7.5 GPa and 13000 C
T. Kawasaki and E. Ito 305

Melting of Ferromagnesa in Silicates under the Lower Mantle Conditions
E. Ito and T. Katsura 315

High Pressure Melting of Pyrolite under Hydrous Condition and Its Geophysical Implications
T. Inoue and H. Sawamoto 323


Partitioning of Elements between Mantle and Core Materials and Early Differentiation of the Earth
E. Ohtani, T. Kato, K. Onuma and E. Ito 341

5. Core and Planetary Materials

Hugoniot Sound Velocities in Metals with Applications to the Earth's Inner Core
T. S. Duffy and T. J. Ahrens  353

High-Pressure Crystal Structure and Equation of State of Iron Hydride: Implications for the Earth's Core
J. V. Badding, H. K. Mao and R. d. Hemley 363

Some Properties of the Fe-H System at High Pressures and Temperatures, and Their Implications
for the Earth' s Core
Y. Fukai 373

Properties of Planetary Fluids at High Shock Pressures and Temperatures
W. J. Nellis, A. C. Mitchell N. C. Holmes and P. C. McCandless 387

Modem Models of Giant Planets
V. N. Zharkov and T. V. Gudkova 393

Equation of State and Insulator-Metal Transition of Ice under Ultra-High Pressures
J. Hama, K. Suito and M. Watanabe 403

High Pressure Study of Diamond, Graphite and Related Materials
I. V. Aleksandrov, A. F. Goncharov, E. V. Yakovenko and S. M. Stishov 409

A New Behavior of Carbon under Shock Compression: Rapid-Quenching of Two New Crystalline
Carbon
Forms
H. Hirai and K. Kondo 417

6. Phase Transition

6.1 Theory

First Principles Predictions of Elasticity and Phase Transitions in High Pressure SiO2 and Geophysical
Implications
R. E. Cohen 425

Molecular Dynamics Study of Rutile-CaC12-Type Phase Transition o f SiO2
Y. Matsui and S. Tsuneyuki 433

Pressure-InducePdh aseT ransitionsin Rutile-Type Crystals
Y. Yamada, S. Tsuneyuki and Y. Matsui 441

6.2 Experiments

High-Pressure High-Temperature Stability of or PbO2-Type TiO2 and MgSiO3 Majorite: Calorimetric
and In Situ X-Ray Diffraction Studies
M. Akaogi, K. Kusaba, d. Susaki, T. Yagi, M. Matsui, T. Kikegawa, H. Yusa and E. Ito 447


Phase Transformation of Baddeleyite (ZrO2) to an Orthorhombic Phase: Structural Analysis of
Ortho-ZrO2 by Neutron Diffraction
O. Ohtaka, T. Yamanaka, S. Kume, N. Hara, H. Asano and F. Izumi 463

Pressure-Induced Phase Transition in Rare Earth Sesquioxides
T. Atou, K. Kusaba, Y. Syono, T. Kikegawa and H. Iwasaki 469

High Pressure Electrical Resistance of Zr and FeF2 through Structural Transformations
R. A. Secco, M. H. Manghnani, L. C. Ming, X. Li and J. A. Xu 477

6.3 Amorphization

Spectroscopic and X -Ray Diffraction Studies of Metastable Crystalline-Amorphous Transitionsin
Ca(OH)2 and Serpentine
C. Meade, R. deanloz and R. J. Hemley 485

Pressure Induced Amorphization of Hexagonal GeO2
T. Yamanaka, T. Shibata, S. Kawasaki and S. Kume 493

Pressure Induced Collapse of the Tetrahedral Framework in Crystalline and Amorphous GeO2
G. H. Wolf, S. Wang, C. A. Herbst, D. J. Durben, W. F. Oliver, Z. C. Kang and K. Halvorson 503

High Pressure Raman Study of TiO2-SiO2 Glasses: Evidence of the Structural Change
J. Xu, M. H. Manghnani, L. C. Ming and S. Wang 519

Author Index 527

Index  529