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History of Geophysics, Volume 4

History of Geophysics, Volume 4

C. Stewart Gillmor (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66553-4

Mar 2013

289 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the History of Geophysics Series, Volume 4.

It has been noted upon several occasions that the History of Geophysics volumes might do well to introduce to new generations of readers some of the early events of our organization, the American Geophysical Union, and of what may be considered to be its first journal, Terrestrial Magnetism (which later became the well-known Journal of Geophysical Research). Following the suggestions of my peers, this volume begins the practice of including some ""early"" articles, both about history of geophysics and about the history of AGU. For this volume I have selected materials taken from the founding of Terrestrial Magnetism in 1896 up to the beginnings of World War I. For example, Sir Edmond Halley's isogonic ""Atlantic Chart"" of 1701 sets Halley's cartographic work apart from all earlier extant charts and it is one of the ""most important maps in the history of cartography. The Atlantic Chart was lost for over a century until it was rediscovered by L. A. Bauer and reproduced in the first issue of Terrestrial Magnetism. Halley's isogones he himself called ""curve lines"". They were generally known as ""Halleyan"" lines until Christopher Hansteen coined the term ""isogone"" about 1820. Other early articles I have chosen for reproduction here include biographical materials on Sir William Gilbert, and on Andrew Carnegie, the world's largest private benefactor of geomagnetism and geophysics, and articles on terrestrial magnetism and earthquakes. Much of these materials concern magnetism and were written or edited by L. A. Bauer. This is due partly to the nature of the early years of Bauer's journal and to Bauer's personal interests. It is hoped that future volumes of History of Geophysics will contain reproductions of historically significant articles representing additional disciplines in geophysics.

Introduction
I C. Stewart Gillmor  ix

Historical Aspects of the Geophysical Sciences

Halley's Earliest Equal Variation Chart. (Reproduced in Facsimile, for the first time, from a
photograph furnished by Thos. Ward, Esq., of the chart in his possession) , L. A. Bauer
Terrestrial Magnetism, 1, frontispiece map, and 28-31, 1896.  2

Portrait and sketch of Sir Edmond Halley 6
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, 16, Plate III and pp. 123-24, and Note p. 249,
1911.

Magnetic Results of Halley's Expedition, 1698-1700 , L. A. Bauer 11
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, 18, 113-126, 1913.

Portrait of Sir William Gilbert 22
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity,S, Plate III (proceeds p. 49) and biog. sketch,
p. 84,1990.

Portrait of Andrew Carnegie 24
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, 9, Plate I, 1904.

Department of International Research in Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution 25
and Appendix and Plan, L. A. Bauer
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, 9 Plate I, pp. 1-6, 7-8, 1904.

Magnetograph Records of Earthquakes with Special References to the San Francisco 31
Earthquake, April 18, 1906, L. A. Bauer
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, 11, 135-44 and Plate IV, 1906.

On the Beginnings of Earthquakes, H. F. Reid 39
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, 15, 40-41, 1910.

Historical Correspondence Between C. V. Theis and C. I. Lubin., R. Allen Freeze 41
Eos, 66, 442, 1985.

Geomagnetics and Scientific Institutions in 19th Century America, Gregory A. Good 43
Eos, 66, 521, 524-26, 1985.

The Storm Controversy and Its Impact on American Science, G. De Young 49
Eos, 66, 657-60, 1985.

Who Discovered Mount Everest? , Parke A. Dickey 54
Eos, 66, 697-700, 1985.

Sailing Research Vessels and the Arctic Schooner Bowdoin, David A. Brooks 60
Eos, 66, cover, and 1227-30, 1985.

Ancient Advice for Modern Mariners', David A. Brooks 65
Eos, 66, 1230, 1985.

Cover and description of instrument. Replica of Early Chinese Seismoscope 66
Eos, 66, No. 46, Nov 12, 1985.

Reversals of the Earth's Magnetic Field and the Acceptance of Crustal Mobility in North 68
America: A View From the Trenches, Neil D. Opdyke
Eos, 66, 1177, 1181-82, 1985.

'Arctic Tides' by Rollin A. Harris (1911) Revisited, Bernard D. Zetler 71
Eos, 67, 73, 76, 1986

Comet Halley and its Historic Passages During the Past Millenium, J. -P. Legrand 74
Eos, 67, cover, and 129-30, 1986.

Gumbel's Hypothesis Regarding the Origin of Manganese Nodules, W. H. Berger 79
Eos, 67, 169, 175, 179, 1986.

Christopher Hansteen (1784-1873): A Pioneer in the Study of Terrestrial Magnetism 83
Asgeir Brekke and Alv Egelund
Eos, 67, 185-87, 1986.

Jose de Acosta (1539-1600): A Pioneer of Geophysics, Agustin Udias 89
Eos, 67, 461-62, 1986.

Pedro Nunez and the First Printed Treatise on Twilight Observation, M. Gadsden 92
Eos, 67, 593-5, 1986.

Origins of the 1961 Axford-Hines Paper on Magnetospheric Convection, Colin Hines 97
Eos, 67, 634, 1986.

Early Work Leading to the Explanation of the Banded Geomagnetic Imprinting of the Ocean 99
Floor, Lawrence W. Morley
Eos, 67, 665-66, 1986.

A Quarter of a Century With the Auroral Oval, Y. I. Feldstein 103
Eos, 67, 761, 765-67, 1986.

The Equatorial Undercurrent: 100 Years of Discovery, Michael J. McPhaden 109
Eos, 67, 762-65, 1986.

The Dark Side of the Earth, (review of Robert Muir Wood book), Henry Frankel 115
Eos, 67, 783-84, 1986.

History of Ideas on the Cause of Earthquakes, B. F. Howell, Jr. 118
Eos, 67, 1323-26, 1986.

A Conversation With Jim Dungey, David P. Stern and J. W. Dungey 125
Eos, 67, 1394-95, 1986.

The Emergence of Global-Scale Hydrology, Peter S. Eagleson 128
Water Resources Research, 22, 65-14S, 1986.

Seismology in the Days of Old, Inge Lehmann 137
Eos, 68, 33-35, 1987.

50 Years of Studies on the Inner Core, Bruce A. Bolt 140
Eos, 68, 73, 80-81, 1987.

The Lehmann Discontinuity, D. L. Anderson, B. A. Bolt and S. A. Morse 145
Eos, 68, 1593, 1987.

Smog Studies of the 1950s i Edgar R. Stephens 146
Eos, 68, 89, 91-93, 1987.

Charles Darwin and Captain Moresby on The Drowning of Great Chagos Bank: 19th Century 152
Discovery of I Arsenic' Ridge Seismicity in the Indian Ocean, Seymour O. Schlanger and
Seth A. Stein
Eos, 68, 137, 140-41, 1987.

Jan Hospers and the Rise of Paleomagnetism I Henry Frankel 156
Eos, 68,577, 579-81, 1987.

Seth Carlo Chandler, Jr.: Discoveries in Polar Motion, W. E. Carter 161
Eos, 68, 593, 603-05, 1987.

Kiyoo Wadati and Early Research on Deep Focus Earthquakes: Introduction to Special Section 166
on Deep and Intermediate Focus Earthquakes, Cliff Frohlich

Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 13777-88, 1987.

The Structure and Functioning of the Geophysical Sciences

There is no Magnetosphere ... Nor is There a Plasmasphere, A. C. Fraser-Smith 181
Eos, 66, 498, 1985.

There is no Magnetosphere ... ,Conrad P. Mook, Kinsey A. Anderson, K. W. Behannon, 182
D. N. Baker, C. T. Russell, and (reply) A. C. Fraser-Smith
Eos, 66, 1177, 1181, 1985.

Geophysicists as Parents, Connie Cansetta 183
Eos, 66, 558-9, 1985.

Filming Seismograms and Related Materials at the California Institute of Technology 185
Judith R. Goodstein and Paul Roberts
Eos, 66, 737-9, 1985.

Survey of Women Geoscientists: Results, Constance Sancetta, Sigrid Asher and 190
Suzanne Webel
Eos, 66, 1358-9, 1985.

Committee on the History of Geophysics: A Report, David P. Stern 192
Eos, 67, 135, 1986.

Why History?', David P. Stern 193
£os, 67, 659, 1986.

Elate Tectonics: Scientific Revolution or Scientific Program? , Jean-Claude Mareschal 194
£os, 68, 529, 532-33, 1987.

Development of Plate Tectonics Theory: The Missing Piece, Bruce R. Doe 197
Eos, 68, 1593, 1987.

Aging of Geophysicists Reconsidered, C. Stewart Gillmor 198
Eos, 68, 802-03, 805-06, 1987.

Historical Geophysical Data and Their Analyses

Geology in and of China: A Tale of Two Maps, Kenneth J. Hsii 203
Tectonics, I, 319-23, 1982.

Eighty-Eight Year Periodicity in Solar-Terrestrial Phenomena Confirmed, J. Feynman and 208
P. F. Fougere
Journal of Geophysical Research, 89, 3023-27, 1984.

Periodicities in Precipitation in North-East China, S. L. Clegg and T. M. L. Wigley 213
Geophysical Research Letters, II, 1219-22, 1984.

Global Ozone Minima in the Historical Record, Richard B. Rood 217
Geophysical Research Letters, 13, 1244-47, 1986.

Models of the Magnetic Field at the Core-Mantle Boundary for 1715, 1777, and 1842 221
Journal of Geophysical Research, 91, 13954-66, 1986.

El Nino Occurrences Over the Past Four and a Half Centuries, William H. Quinn, 234
Victor T. Neal, Santiago E. Antunez de Mayolo

Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 14449-61, 1987.

Biographies of Geophysicists and Celebrations

Jaime Amorocho 1920-1983, Miquel A. Marino  249
Eos, 65, 148-49, 1984.

Louis J. Battan 1923-1986, David Atlas  250
Eos, 68, 665, 676, 1987.

Neil Mathur Brice 1934-1974, W. I. Axford, D. T. Farley, R. A. Helliwell and C. F. Kennel 253
Eos, 66, 1353-55, 1985.

Cynthia Bravo: 25 Years at AGU 256
Eos, 66, 1205, 1985.

Allan V. Cox. AGU President, Barbara T. Richman 257
Eos, 68, 98, 1987.

Allan Cox 1926-1987, Rob Coe and Brent Dalrymple 258
Eos, 68, 513-14, 1987.

Memories of (William) Maurice Ewing: The Little Boy in the Candy Shop , William L. Donn 260
Eos, 66, 129-30, 1985.

Adrian E. Gill 1937-1986 , Allan J. Clarke 263
Eos, 67, 761, 1986.

Oliver H. Gish 1883-1987, Eleanor G. Crow and Donald M. Gish 264
Eos, 68, 617, 1987.

Mahdi S. Hantush 1921-1984, M. U. Ahmad et al. 265
Eos, 65, 361, 1984.

Norman Stuart Heaps 1928-1986, David E. Cartwright 266
Eos, 68, 33, 1987.

Robert E. Holzer. In Celebration of his 80th Birthday, C. T. Russell, Marx Brook, 267
S. Ruttenberg, E. J. Smith and J. A. Slavin
Eos, 68, 761-3, 1987.

Helmut Landsberg 1906-1985, E. G. Droessler 271
Eos, 67, 457, 1986.

1985 Bowie Medal to H. William Menard, Marcia McNutt, H. William Menard 272
Eos, 67, cover, and 8-9, 1986.

H. W. Menard 1920-1986, Roger Revelle 274
Eos, 67, 441, 446, 1986.

Introduction and Tribute to H. W. Menard 1920-1986, John A. Orcutt 276
Journal of Geophysical Research, 93, 2771-4, 1988.

Nalin Mukherjee 1922-1984, Kenneth Moe 280
Eos, 67, 689, 1986.

A Special Issue in Memory of John F. Noxon 1928-1985, Susan Solomon and 281
William L. Chameides
Journal of Geophysical Research, 91, 5321, 1986.

Velior Petrovich Shabansky 1927-1985, Norman Ness 282
Eos, 67, 673, 1986.

Frank Snodgrass 1920-1985, Walter Munk 283
Eos, 66, 753, 1985.

Johannes Theodor Thijsse 1893-1984, Jozinus Ploeg 284
Eos, 66, 569, 1985.

John P. Tully 1906-1987, Sus Tabata 285
Eos, 68, 1809, 1819, 1987.

Daniel A. Valencio 1928-1987, Otto Schneider 286
Eos, 68, 1793, 1987.

Charles A. Whitten Medal, John D. Bossler and Charles A. Whitten 287
Eos, 66, 517-18, 1985.

David R. Wones 1932-1984, Charles Gilbert 289
Eos, 66, 657, 1985.