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Horticultural Reviews, Volume 6

Horticultural Reviews, Volume 6

Jules Janick (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-06079-7 February 2011 441 Pages

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Horticultural Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on topics in horticultural science and technology covering both basic and applied research. Topics covered include the horticulture of fruits, vegetables, nut crops, and ornamentals. These review articles, written by world authorities, bridge the gap between the specialized researcher and the broader community of horticultural scientists and teachers.

Contributors viii

Dedication xi

1 Kiwifruit: A Botanical Review 1
A.R. Ferguson

I. Introduction 3

II. The Genus Actinidia 4

III. Taxa and Distribution 9

IV. Vegetative Structure 13

V. The Flower 21

VI. Pollination 32

VII. The Fruit 35

VIII. The Seed 48

IX. Summary of Unusual Characteristics 51

Literature Cited 53

2 Parthenocarpy in Tomato 65
W.L. George, Jr., J.W. Scott, and W.E. Splittstoesser

I. Introduction 66

II. Types of Pachenocarpy 66

III. Sources 67

IV. Genetics 69

V. Physiology 71

VI. Expression 74

VII. Applications in Tomato Breeding 76

Literature Cited 80

3 Origin and Improvement of Spawn of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus brunnescens Peck 85
James P. Sun Antonio

I. The Cultivated Mushroom Industry 86

II. Mushroom Spawn and Spawnmaking 89

III. Improvement of Mushroom Cultivars 100

IV.  Conclusions 111

Literature Cited 111

4 Acclimatization of Indoor Foliage Plants 119
C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole

I. Introduction 120

II. Biological Principles 122

III. Cultural and Environmental Factors Affecting Acclimatization 130

IV. Shipping Procedures 137

V. Postharvest Handling in Interiors 143

VI. Concluding Remarks 147

Literature Cited 147

5 Response of Plants to Root Pruning 155
Dagmar Geisler and David C. Ferree

I. Introduction 156

II. Effects of Root Pruning on Growth and Development 158

III. Effects of Root Pruning on Physiological Processes 167

IV. Practical Use of Root-Pruning Techniques 171

V. Relationship of Root Pruning and Top Pruning 177

VI. Root Restriction 179

VII. Summary 181

Literature Cited 181

6 Watercore 189
Gary C. Marlow and Wayne H. Loescher

I. Introduction 190

II. Description 191

III. Detection 195

IV. Occurrence 196

V. Economic Consequences 196

VI. Theories of Cause 199

VII. Summary and Conclusions 232

Literature Cited 234

7 Control and Management of Vertebrate Pests in Deciduous Orchards of the Eastern United States 253
R.E. Byers

I. Introduction 254

II. Voles 254

III. Other Vertebrate Pests 274

IV. Concluding Remarks 278

Literature Cited 279

8 Foliar Nutrition of Fruit Crops 287
Dariusz Swietlik and Miklos Faust

I. Introduction 288

II. Uptake of Foliar-Applied Nutrients 290

III. Factors Affecting Absorption of Foliar-Applied Nutrients 297

IV. Metabolism of Foliar-Absorbed Nitrogen 307

V. Translocation of Foliar-Absorbed Nutrients 310

VI. Effect of Foliar Sprays on Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance, and Transpiration 314

VII. Effect of Foliar Sprays on Horticultural Characteristics 316

VIII. Technology and General Recommendations for Foliar-Nutrient Application 324

IX. Commercially Available Foliar Fertilizers 336

X. Conclusion 336

Literature Cited 338

9  Cryopreservation of Apical Meristems 357
Akira Sakai

I. Introduction 357

II. Survival of Plant Materials Immersed in Liquid Nitrogen 358

III. Hardy Apical Meristems of Fruit Trees 360

IV. Less Hardy or Nonhardy Apical Meristems 362

V. Summary 370

Literature Cited 370

10 Subzero Temperature Stress Physiology of Herbaceous Plants 373
Paul H. Li

I. Introduction 374

II. Methods for Measuring Plant Cold Hardiness 375

III. Cold Acclimation 379

IV. Freezing Stress 395

V. Concluding Remarks 405

Literature Cited 405

Index (Volume 6) 417

Cumulative Index (Volumes 1-6 Inclusive) 419

Contributor Index (Volumes 1-6 Inclusive) 427