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Human Resource Management, 4th Edition

Greg L. Stewart, Kenneth G. Brown

ISBN: 978-1-119-49217-7 July 2019 610 Pages

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Description

Human Resource Management addresses the challenges faced by human resource managers, integrating traditional theory with real-world strategy to equip students with the knowledge, perspective, and skills they need to thrive in the ever-changing global business environment. Presented in a clear and relatable style, this text emphasizes how effective human resource management and strategic planning work in concert to allow organizations to achieve maximum success.

The focus on practical application illustrates the essential link between strategic planning and implementation, providing an inside look at how real-world companies increase effectiveness through world-class human resources management practices. A wealth of case studies, discussion topics, and exercises reinforce key concepts, strengthening students’ ability to think strategically and integrate core HR management principles into the decision-making process. By mirroring the current landscape’s increased reliance on smart people-management strategy, this text underscores the importance of HR management in attracting and retaining the top talent that drives an organization forward.

Part 1 Appreciating People as a Strategic Resource

Chapter 1 Creating Value Through Human Resources a Manager’s Perspective 2

How Can Human Resource Management Make an Organization Effective? 4

How is Organizational Success Determined? 6

Success in Life-Cycle Stages 6

Success from Stakeholder Perspectives 9

The Chain of Success 11

What Does Human Resource Management Provide to an Organization? 12

Core Human Resource Functions 13

Spreading Knowledge About Human Resource Practices 15

What Do Human Resource Specialists Do? 17

Human Resource Roles 17

Human Resource Competencies 20

How Will Current Trends Affect Human Resource Management? 23

Population Trends 23

Labor Force Trends 24

Employment Trends 25

Trends in Education and Training 26

Globalization Trends 26

How Do Strategic and Functional Perspectives Combine to Direct Human Resource Practices? 27

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 28

Summary 29

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 30

Chapter 2 Making Human Resource Management Strategic a Manager’s Perspective 34

How Can a Strategic Approach to Human Resources Improve an Organization? 36

How is Strategy Formulated? 38

Gathering Information 39

Analyzing Information and Making Decisions 42

What are Common Competitive Business Strategies? 44

Cost Leadership Strategy 45

Differentiation Strategy 46

Combination Strategy 47

What are Basic Approaches to Human Resource Strategy? 48

The Universalistic Approach 49

The Contingency Approach 52

What are Common Human Resource Strategies? 56

Internal/Cost HR Strategy: The Loyal Soldier 56

External/Cost HR Strategy: The Bargain Laborer 57

Internal/Differentiation HR Strategy: The Committed Expert 58

External/Differentiation HR Strategy: The Free Agent 58

How Do Human Resource Strategies Align with Competitive Business Strategies? 59

Research Supporting the Contingency Perspective 60

Putting it all Together 62

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 62

Summary 63

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 65

Exercises 65

Chapter 3 Ensuring Equal Employment Opportunity and Safety a Manager’s Perspective 70

Why is It Important to Understand Legal and Safety Issues? 72

What is the Main Law Relating to Discrimination and Employment? 73

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 75

The Civil Rights Act of 1991 81

Application of U.S. Laws to International Employers 83

What are Other Important Employment Laws? 85

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act 85

The Americans with Disabilities Act 87

The Equal Pay Act 89

The Family and Medical Leave Act 90

How Can Organizations Increase Diversity? 91

Executive Order 11246 93

Restrictions on Affirmative Action Plans 94

Affirmative Action Plans Today 94

What are the Major Laws Relating to Occupational Safety? 95

Occupational Safety and Health Act 96

Workers’ Compensation 98

What Specific Practices Increase Fairness and Safety? 99

Employees 100

Leadership 100

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 103

Summary 104

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 105

Part 2 Securing Effective Employees

Chapter 4 Designing Productive and Satisfying Work a Manager’s Perspective 110

How Can Strategic Design of Work Tasks Improve an Organization? 112

How is Work Design Strategic? 114

Developing Autonomy 114

Developing Interdependence 116

Linking Autonomy and Interdependence to HR Strategy 117

How are Employee Jobs Determined? 118

The Job Analysis Process 118

Specific Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information 123

How is Job Description Information Made Useful? 126

Job Analysis and Legal Issues 127

Competency Modeling 128

How Do We Determine the Tasks Associated with Each Job? 130

Mechanistic Approach 131

Motivational Approach 132

Perceptual Approach 134

Biological Approach 134

Combining Work Design Approaches 135

Job Crafting 135

How Can Work Be Designed to Improve Family Life? 136

Flexible Work Scheduling 137

Alternative Work Locations 139

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 141

Summary 141

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 143

Chapter 5 Recruiting Talented Employees a Manager’s Perspective 150

How Can Strategic Recruiting Make an Organization Effective? 152

How is Employee Recruiting Strategic? 154

Broad Versus Targeted Skill Scope 154

Internal Versus External Sourcing 156

Realistic Versus Idealistic Messaging 158

How Does Human Resource Planning Facilitate Recruiting? 160

The Planning Process 160

Batch and Flow Approaches 164

Centralization of Processes 164

Who Searches for Jobs? 165

New Workforce Entrants 166

Unemployed Workers 168

Workers Currently Employed 168

What Characteristics Make an Organization Attractive? 169

Generally Attractive Characteristics 170

Fit Between People and Organizations 172

What are Common Recruiting Sources? 173

Job Posting 173

Employee Referrals 173

Print Advertising 174

Electronic Advertising 175

Employment Agencies 176

Campus Recruiting 178

How is Recruiting Effectiveness Determined? 180

Common Measures 180

Differences Among Recruiting Sources 181

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 182

Summary 183

Key Terms 184

Discussion Questions 185

Exercises 185

Chapter 6 Selecting Employees Who Fit a Manager’s Perspective 190

How Can Strategic Employee Selection Improve An Organization? 192

How is Employee Selection Strategic? 193

Making Strategic Selection Decisions 193

What Makes a Selection Method Good? 196

Reliability 197

Validity 198

Utility 200

Legality and Fairness 203

Acceptability 204

What Selection Methods are Commonly Used? 205

Testing 205

Information Gathering 214

Interviewing 218

How are Final Selection Decisions Made? 222

Predictor Weighting Approach 222

Minimum Cutoffs Approach 222

Multiple Hurdles Approach 223

Banding Approach 223

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 224

Summary 225

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 226

Exercises 226

Chapter 7 Managing Employee Retention and Separation Manager’s Perspective 236

How Can Strategic Employee Retention and Separation Make an Organization Effective? 238

How are Employee Retention and Separation Strategic? 240

Strategic Emphasis on Employee Retention 240

Strategic Emphasis on Employee Separation 241

How Can Undesirable Employee Turnover Be Reduced? 242

Recognizing Paths to Voluntary Turnover 243

Understanding Decisions to Quit 245

Organizational Practices that Reduce Turnover 249

How Do Layoffs Affect Individuals and Organizations? 256

The Effect of Layoffs on Organizations 256

The Effects of Layoffs on Individuals 257

Reducing the Negative Impact of Layoffs 259

What are Common Steps in Disciplining Employees? 261

Principles of Due Process 262

The Process of Progressive Discipline 262

How Should Employee Dismissals Be Carried Out? 264

Outplacement Services 264

The Dismissal Meeting 265

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 266

Summary 267

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 268

Part 3 Improving Employee Performance

Chapter 8 Measuring Performance and Providing Feedback

A Manager’s Perspective 276

How Can Performance Management Make an Organization Effective? 278

How is Performance Management Strategic? 279

Emphasizing Either Merit or Parity 280

Linking Merit and Parity Systems to HR Strategy 281

What is Performance? 282

Task Performance 282

Citizenship Performance 283

Counterproductive Performance 284

How is Performance Measured? 286

Contamination and Deficiency as Sources of Inaccuracy 287

General Types of Performance Measures 288

Common Problems with Performance Measures 289

Rating Formats 294

Who Should Measure Performance? 296

Multisource Performance Ratings 297

Rating Source Differences 298

How Should Feedback Be Provided? 300

Providing Positive and Negative Feedback 301

Effectively Communicating Methods for Improvement 302

Reducing Negative Emotional Responses 304

Building High Expectations 305

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 305

Summary 306

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 308

Exercises 309

Chapter 9 Training for Improved Performance

A Manager’s Perspective 316

How Can Strategic Employee Training Improve An Organization? 318

How is Employee Training Strategic? 321

Differentiation Versus Cost Leadership Strategy 321

Internal Versus External Labor Orientation 322

What are Key Principles for Getting Benefits From Training? 324

Partnership 324

Systematic Process 325

How are Training Needs Determined? 326

Proactive Needs Assessment 327

Reactive Needs Assessment 330

Prioritizing and Creating Objectives 332

How is Effective Training Designed and Delivered? 335

Content 335

Training Methods 336

Training Media 340

Transfer-Enhancement Techniques 343

Putting it all Together 345

How do Organizations Determine Whether Training is Effective? 346

Purpose 347

Outcomes 348

Design 350

Results 350

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 351

Summary 352

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 353

Exercise 353

Chapter 10 Developing Employees and Their Careers A Manager’s Perspective 358

How Can Strategic Employee Development Make an Organization Effective? 360

How is Employee Development Strategic? 362

External Versus Internal Labor Orientation 362

Differentiation Versus Cost Strategy 363

What are Careers Like Today? 364

How Can Organizations Help Employees Develop? 366

Formal Education 366

Assessments and Feedback 367

Work Experiences 371

Developmental Relationships 373

How Do Organizations Integrate Development Efforts? 375

Competency Model 375

Career Development Process 376

Technology 378

What are Some Important Career Development Challenges? 379

Orienting New Employees 379

Reducing Burnout 380

Helping Employees Balance Work with Personal Lives 381

Developing a Diverse Workforce 382

Managing International Assignments 382

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 385

Summary 385

Key Terms 386

Discussion Questions 387

Exercise 387

Part 4 Motivating and Managing Employees

Chapter 11 Motivating Employees Through Compensation

A Manager’s Perspective 392

How Can Strategic Employee Compensation Make an Organization Effective? 394

How is Employee Compensation Strategic? 396

External Versus Internal Labor 397

Differentiation Versus Cost Strategy 397

Aligning Compensation with HR Strategy 398

How Does Compensation Motivate People? 400

Theories of Motivation 401

Linking Motivation with Strategy 407

How is Compensation Level Determined? 409

Pay Surveys 409

Pay‐Level Strategies 413

Linking Compensation Level and Strategy 413

How is Compensation Structure Determined? 415

Job‐Based Pay 415

Skill‐Based Pay 417

Linking Compensation Structure to Strategy 419

How Do Government Regulations Influence Compensation? 420

Fair Labor Standards Act 420

State and Local Regulations 424

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 424

Summary 425

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 427

Exercises 428

Chapter 12 Designing Compensation and Benefit Packages

A Manager’s Perspective 432

How Can a Strategic Compensation Package Make an Organization Effective? 434

How Do Compensation Packages Align with Strategy? 436

At-Risk Compensation 436

Line of Sight 438

Common Elements of Compensation Packages 438

What are Common Approaches to Base Pay? 440

What are Common Employee Benefit Plans? 442

Legally Required Benefits 442

Discretionary Benefits 445

Flexible Benefit Programs 448

What are Common Individual Incentives? 449

Piece-Rate Incentives 450

Commissions 451

Merit Pay Increases 452

Merit Bonuses 454

What are Common Group and Organizational Incentives? 455

Team Bonuses and Incentives 455

Gainsharing 456

Profit Sharing 458

Stock Plans 459

How Do Strategic Decisions Influence a Compensation Package? 460

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 462

Summary 463

Key Terms 464

Discussion Questions 465

Exercises 465

Chapter 13 Working Effectively with Labor

A Manager’s Perspective 468

How Can Good Labor Relations Make an Organization Effective? 470

How are Labor Relations Strategic? 472

How Has Organized Labor Evolved Over Time? 475

The Influence of Government Regulations 476

Current Trends in Organized Labor 479

International Differences in Organized Labor 483

The Effect of Labor Unions on Nonunion Workers 485

How Do Workers Become Part of a Union? 486

Union Organizing Campaigns 486

Decertification Campaigns 488

Factors Influencing Union Campaigns 488

What Happens During Labor Negotiations and Collective Bargaining? 489

Bargaining Topics 489

Work Stoppages 490

The Bargaining Atmosphere 492

Interest-Based Negotiation 494

What is the Grievance Process? 496

Grievance Procedures 496

Determinants of Grievance Filing 497

Grievance Mediation 497

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 498

Summary 499

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 500

Exercises 501

Chapter 14 Aligning Strategy with Practice

A Manager’s Perspective 504

How Can Alignment of HR Practices Make an Organization Effective? 506

What are Two Basic Forms of Strategic Alignment? 509

How Do HR Practices Align with One Another? 511

External/Cost: Alignment for Bargain Laborers 512

Internal/Cost: Alignment for Loyal Soldiers 514

Internal/Differentiation: Alignment for Committed Experts 517

External/Differentiation: Alignment for Free Agents 520

What are Some Other HR Issues? 522

Variations of Basic Strategies 522

HR as an Input to Competitive Strategy 523

The Role of HR in Small Businesses 524

What Might the Future of HR Look Like? 525

Embracing Technology 526

Adopting a Strategic Approach 526

Assimilating a New Generation of Workers 527

Remaining Compliant 527

A Manager’s Perspective Revisited 528

Summary 529

Key Terms/Discussion Questions 530

Exercises 531

Appendices

Appendix A Cases for Hands-On Experiential Exercises 534

Appendix B Occupational Outlook for HR Specialists and Managers 540

Appendix C HR Certification Institute Credentials 544

Appendix D SHRM Credentials 547

Appendix E Organizations of Interest to HR Students and Professionals 549

Appendix F Journals Useful to HR Students and Professionals 551

Glossary 553

Name and Company Index 563

Subject Index 579

 

  • Expanded coverage of current legislation, including the Affordable Care Act and recent privacy protection guidelines, and their impact on HR management
  • Discussion of emerging technological tools and methods, including of the use of social media as a recruitment tool
  • “How Do We Know?” features detail relevant findings from cutting-edge research
  • Revisions reflect the latest practices and emerging issues, including new information from the HR Certification Institute and attention to HR analytics
  • New real-world examples profile industry-leading companies including Amazon and Qualtrics, and an ongoing case study can be used to structure in-class exercises
  • Provides both in-depth explanations of traditional HR concepts, and a framework that links individual methods to specific situations
  • Engages students with real-life scenarios, describing specific strategic decisions made by human resource professionals and how those decisions relate to central concepts
  • Strengthens student comprehension with example cases, discussion cases, and exercises that reinforce key concepts
  • Highlights recent academic research through accessible summaries that relate findings directly to course material
  • Emphasizes the importance of modern technology and its role in strategic decision making and human resource management