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Hydrocarbons in Basement Formations

Hardcover

$249.00

Hydrocarbons in Basement Formations

M. R. Islam, M. E. Hossain, A. O. Islam

ISBN: 978-1-119-29422-1 February 2018 642 Pages

Description

Petroleum and natural gas still remain the single biggest resource for energy on earth.  Even as alternative and renewable sources are developed, petroleum and natural gas continue to be, by far, the most used and, if engineered properly, the most cost-effective and efficient, source of energy on the planet.  Contrary to some beliefs, the industry can, in fact, be sustainable, from an environmental, economic, and resource perspective.  Petroleum and natural gas are, after all, natural sources of energy and do not have to be treated as pariahs.  This groundbreaking new text describes hydrocarbons in basement formations, how they can be characterized and engineered, and how they can be engineered properly, to best achieve sustainability.

Covering the basic theories and the underlying scientific concepts, the authors then go on to explain the best practices and new technologies and processes for utilizing basement formations for the petroleum and natural gas industries.  Covering all of the hottest issues in the industry, from oil shale, tar sands, and hydraulic fracturing, this book is a must-have for any engineer working in the industry. 

This textbook is an excellent resource for petroleum engineering students, reservoir engineers, supervisors & managers, researchers and environmental engineers for planning every aspect of rig operations in the most sustainable, environmentally responsible manner, using the most up-to-date technological advancements in equipment and processes.

Foreword xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Summary 1

1.2 Is Sustainable Petroleum Technology Possible? 2

1.3 Why is it Important to Know the Origin of Petroleum? 4

1.4 What is the Likelihood of an Organic Source? 5

1.5 What is the Implication of the Abiogenic Theory of Hydrocarbon? 6

1.6 How Important are the Fractures for Basement Reservoirs? 8

1.7 What are we Missing Out? 8

1.8 Predicting the Future? 10

1.9 What is the Actual Potential of Basement Hydrocarbons? 10

2 Organic Origin of Basement Hydrocarbons 11

2.0 Introduction 11

2.1 Sources of Hydrocarbon 13

2.2 Non-Conventional Sources of Petroleum Fluids 29

2.3 What is a Natural Energy Source? 34

2.4 The Science of Water and Petroleum 39

2.5 Comparison between Water and Petroleum 42

2.6 Combustion and Oxidation 57

2.6.1 Petroleum 59

2.6.2 Natural Gas 60

2.6.3 Natural Gas Hydrates 62

2.6.4 Tar Sand Bitumen 63

2.6.5 Coal 65

2.6.6 Oil Shale 65

2.6.7 Wax 66

2.6.8 Biomass 67

3 Non-organic Origin of Basement Hydrocarbons 69

3.0 Introduction 69

3.1 Theories of Non-organic Origin of Basement Petroleum 70

3.2 Formation of Magma 72

3.2.1 Magma Escape Routes 73

3.2.2 Magma Chamber 74

3.2.3 Types of Magma 78

3.2.3.1 Mafic Magma 80

3.2.3.2 Intermediate Magma 80

3.2.3.3 Felsic Magma 81

3.3 The Composition of Magma 82

3.4 The Dynamics of Magma 85

3.5 Water in the Mantle 103

3.6 The Carbon Cycle and Hydrocarbon 108

3.7 Role of Magma During the Formation of Hydrocarbon from Organic Sources 118

3.8 Abiogenic Petroleum Origin Theory 119

3.8.1 Diamond as Source of Hydrocarbons 128

3.8.2 Oil and Gas Deposits in the Precambrian Crystalline Basement 132

3.8.3 Supergiant Oil and Gas Accumulations 138

3.8.4 Gas Hydrates – the Greatest Source of Abiogenic Petroleum 142

4 Characterization of Basement Reservoirs 147

4.0 Summary 147

4.1 Introduction 147

4.2 Natural and Artificial Fractures 151

4.2.1 Overall in Situ Stress Orientations 161

4.3 Developing Reservoir Characterization Tools for Basement Reservoirs 162

4.4 Origin of Fractures 171

4.5 Seismic Fracture Characterization 178

4.5.1 Effects of Fractures on Normal Moveout (NMO) Velocities and P-wave Azimuthal AVO Response 181

4.5.2 Effects of Fracture Parameters on Properties of Anisotropic Parameters and P-wave NMO Velocities 182

4.6 Reservoir Characterization During Drilling 185

4.6.1 Overbalanced Drilling 191

4.6.2 Underbalanced Drilling (UBD) 193

4.7 Reservoir Characterization with Image Log and Core Analysis 202

4.7.1 Geophysical Logs 205

4.7.1.1 Circumferential Borehole Imaging Log (CBIL) 213

4.7.1.2 Petrophysical Data Analysis using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) 220

4.7.2 Core Analysis 228

4.8 Major Forces of Oil and Gas Reservoirs 237

4.9 Reservoir Heterogeneity 255

4.9.1 Filtering Permeability Data 263

4.9.2 Total Volume Estimate 267

4.9.3 Estimates of Fracture Properties 268

4.10 Special Considerations for Shale 268

5 Case Studies of Fractured Basement Reservoirs 273

5.0 Summary 273

5.1 Introduction 274

5.2 Geophysical Tools 282

5.2.1 Scale Considerations in Logging Fracture Rocks 283

5.2.2 Fracture Applications of Conventional Geophysical Logs 284

5.2.3 Borehole Techniques 290

5.2.3.1 Borehole Wall Imaging 291

5.2.4 Micro Log Analysis 294

5.2.4.1 High-definition Formation Microimager 295

5.2.4.2 Micro-Conductivity Imager Tool (MCI) 299

5.2.4.3 Multistage Geometric Analysis Method 300

5.2.5 Fracture Identifications using Neural Networks 303

5.3 Petro-physics in Fracture Modeling, Special Logs and their Importance 303

5.3.1 Measurement While Drilling (MWD) 303

5.3.1.1 Formation Properties 305

5.3.2 Mud Logging 306

5.3.2.1 Objectives of Mud Logging 306

5.3.2.2 Mud Losses into Natural Fractures 307

5.3.3 Conventional Logging 308

5.3.3.1 Resistivity Logging 308

5.3.3.2 Porosity Logging 308

5.3.3.3 Combination Tools 308

5.3.3.4 Cased-Hole Logging 309

5.3.4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Ultra Sonography 309

5.3.4.1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 309

5.3.4.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 310

5.3.4.3 Ultra-Sonography 311

5.4 Case Study of Vietnam 312

5.5 Case Studies from USA 323

5.5.1 Tuning/Vertical Resolution Analysis 327

5.5.2 Conclusion on Case Study 329

5.5.3 Geological Techniques 329

5.5.3.1 Data and Methods 330

5.5.3.2 Distinguishing Natural Fractures from Induced Fractures and their Well-Logging Response Features 333

5.5.3.3 Analysis of well-Logging Responses to Fractures and Establishment of Interpretation Model 334

5.5.3.4 Distribution of Natural Fracture 335

6 Scientific Characterization of Basement Reservoirs 337

6.1 Summary 337

6.2 Introduction 338

6.3 Characteristic Time 342

6.4 Organic and Mechanical Frequencies 349

6.5 Redefining Force and Energy 351

6.5.1 Energy 351

6.6 Natural Energy vs. Artificial Energy 362

6.7 From Natural Energy to Natural Mass 368

6.8 Organic Origin of Petroleum 397

6.9 Scientific Ranking of Petroleum 403

6.10 Placement of Basement Reservoirs in the Energy Picture 414

6.10.1 Reserve Growth Potential of Basement Oil/Gas 424

6.10.2 Reservoir Categories in the United States 425

6.10.2.1 Eolian Reservoirs 427

6.10.2.2 Interconnected Fluvial, Deltaic, and Shallow Marine Reservoirs 434

6.10.2.3 Deeper Marine Shales 440

6.10.2.4 Marine Carbonate Reservoirs 443

6.10.2.5 Submarine Fan Reservoir 446

6.10.2.6 Fluvial Reservoir 446

6.10.3 Quantitative Measures of Well Production Variability 451

7 Overview of Reservoir Simulation of Basement Reservoirs 459

7.1 Summary 459

7.2 Introduction 460

7.2.1 Vugs and Fractures Together (Triple Porosity): 465

7.3 Meaningful Modeling 466

7.4 Essence of Reservoir Simulation 468

7.4.1 Assumptions behind Various Modeling Approaches 469

7.4.1.1 Material Balance Equation 471

7.4.1.2 Decline Curve 473

7.4.1.3 Statistical Method 482

7.4.1.4 Finite Difference Methods 487

7.5 Modeling Fractured Networks 493

7.5.1 Introduction 493

7.5.2 Double Porosity Models 493

7.5.2.1 The Baker Model 495

7.5.2.2 The Warren-Root Model 1963 496

7.5.2.3 The Kazemi Model 496

7.5.3 The De Swaan Model 497

7.5.4 Modeling of Double Porosity Reservoirs 497

7.5.5 Dimensionless Variables 498

7.5.6 Influence of Double-Porosity Parameters 501

7.5.6.1 Influence of ω: 502

7.5.6.2 Influence of λ: 502

7.6 Double Permeability Models 504

7.6.1 Basic Assumptions for Double Permeability Model 505

7.6.2 Dimensionless Variables 507

7.6.3 Double Permeability Behavior when the two Layers are Producing 508

7.6.4 Influence of Double Permeability Parameters 508

7.6.4.1 Influence of κ and ω: 508

7.6.4.2 Influence of λ: 511

7.6.5 Double Permeability Behavior when only One Layer is Producing 511

7.7 Reservoir Simulation Data Input 514

7.8 Geological and Geophysical Modeling 516

7.9 Reservoir Characterization 518

7.9.1 Representative Elementary Volume, REV 520

7.9.2 Fluid and Rock Properties 523

7.9.2.1 Fluid Properties 523

7.10 Risk Analysis and Reserve Estimations 524

7.10.1 Special Conditions of Unconventional Reservoirs 524

7.10.1.1 Fluid Saturation 525

7.10.1.2 Transition Zones 525

7.10.1.3 Permeability-Porosity Relationships 525

7.10.1.4 Compressibility of the Fractured Reservoirs 526

7.10.1.5 Capillary Pressure 526

7.10.2 Recovery Mechanisms in Fractured Reservoirs 528

7.10.2.1 Expansion 528

7.10.2.2 Sudation 530

7.10.2.3 Convection and Diffusion 532

7.10.2.4 Multiphase Flow in the Fracture Network 532

7.10.2.5 Interplay of the Recovery Processes 533

7.10.2.6 Cyclic Water Injection 533

7.10.2.7 Localized Deformation of Fluid Contacts 534

7.10.3 Specific Aspects of a Fractured Reservoir 535

7.10.3.1 Material Balance Relationships 535

7.10.4 Migration of Hydrocarbons in a Fractured Reservoir and Associated Risks 538

7.10.4.1 The Case of Fracturing Followed by Hydrocarbon Migration 538

7.11 Recent Advances in Reservoir Simulation 542

7.11.1 Speed and Accuracy 542

7.11.2 New Fluid Flow Equations 543

7.11.3 Coupled Fluid Flow and Geo-Mechanical Stress Model 545

7.11.4 Fluid Flow Modeling under Thermal Stress 547

7.11.5 Challenges of Modeling Unconventional Gas Reservoirs 547

7.12 Comprehensive Modeling 556

7.12.1 Governing Equations 556

7.12.2 Darcy’s Model 557

7.12.3 Forchheimer’s Model 558

7.12.4 Modified Brinkman’s Model 561

7.12.5 The Comprehensive Model 564

7.13 Towards Solving Non-Linear Equations 568

7.13.1 Adomian Domain Decomposition Method 569

7.13.2 Governing Equations 571

7.14 Adomian Decomposition of Buckley-Leverett Equation 573

7.14.1 Discussion 576

8 Conclusions and Recommendations 581

8.1 Concluding Remarks 581

8.2 Answers to the Research Questions 582

8.2.1 Is Sustainable Petroleum Technology Possible? 582

8.2.2 Why is it Important to Know the Origin of Petroleum? 582

8.2.3 What is the Likelihood of an Organic Source for Basement Fluids? 583

8.2.4 What is the Implication of the Abiogenic Theory of Hydrocarbon? 583

8.2.5 How Important are the Fractures for Basement Reservoirs? 583

8.2.6 What are we Missing Out? 584

8.2.7 Predicting the Future? 584

8.2.8 What is the Actual Potential of Basement Hydrocarbons? 584

9 References and Bibliography 587

Index 619