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Hydrogen Production: by Electrolysis

Hydrogen Production: by Electrolysis

Agata Godula-Jopek, Detlef Stolten (Foreword by)

ISBN: 978-3-527-67652-1

Feb 2015

424 pages

$152.99

Description

Covering the various aspects of this fast-evolving field, this comprehensive book includes the fundamentals and a comparison of current applications, while focusing on the latest, novel achievements and future directions.
The introductory chapters explore the thermodynamic and electrochemical processes to better understand how electrolysis cells work, and how these can be combined to build large electrolysis modules. The book then goes on to discuss the electrolysis process and the characteristics, advantages, drawbacks, and challenges of the main existing electrolysis technologies. Current manufacturers and the main features of commercially available electrolyzers are extensively reviewed. The final chapters then present the possible configurations for integrating water electrolysis units with renewable energy sources in both autonomous and grid-connected systems, and comment on some relevant demonstration projects.
Written by an internationally renowned team from academia and industry, the result is an invaluable review of the field and a discussion of known limitations and future perspectives.

Foreword XIII

Preface XV

List of Contributors XIX

1 Introduction 1
Agata Godula-Jopek

1.1 Overview on Different Hydrogen Production Means from a Technical Point of View 10

1.2 Summary Including Hydrogen Production Cost Overview 21

References 28

2 Fundamentals ofWater Electrolysis 33
Pierre Millet

2.1 Thermodynamics of theWater Splitting Reaction 33

2.2 Efficiency of ElectrochemicalWater Splitting 46

2.3 Kinetics of theWater Splitting Reaction 52

2.4 Conclusions 59

Nomenclature 59

Greek symbols 60

Subscripts or superscripts 60

Acronyms 60

References 61

3 PEMWater Electrolysis 63
Pierre Millet

3.1 Introduction, Historical Background 63

3.2 Concept of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Cell 65

3.3 Description of Unit PEM Cells 67

3.4 Electrochemical Performances of Unit PEM Cells 76

3.5 Cell Stacking 94

3.6 Balance of Plant 100

3.7 Main Suppliers, Commercial Developments and Applications 102

3.8 Limitations, Challenges and Perspectives 105

3.9 Conclusions 111

Nomenclature 113

Greek symbols 113

Subscripts or superscripts 114

Acronyms 114

References 114

4 AlkalineWater Electrolysis 117
Nicolas Guillet and Pierre Millet

4.1 Introduction and Historical Background 117

4.2 Description of Unit Electrolysis Cells 121

4.3 Electrochemical Performances of AlkalineWater Electrolysers 137

4.4 Main Suppliers, Commercial Developments and Applications 147

4.5 Conclusions 161

Nomenclature 162

Greek Symbols 162

Subscripts or Superscripts 162

Acronyms 163

References 163

5 Unitized Regenerative Systems 167
Pierre Millet

5.1 Introduction 167

5.2 Underlying Concepts 168

5.3 Low-Temperature PEM URFCs 174

5.4 High-Temperature URFCs 182

5.5 General Conclusion and Perspectives 187

Nomenclature 187

Greek Symbols 188

Subscripts or Superscripts 188

Acronyms 188

References 189

6 High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis 191
Jérôme Laurencin and Julie Mougin

6.1 Introduction 191

6.2 Overview of the Technology 191

6.3 Fundamentals of Solid-State Electrochemistry in SOEC 197

6.4 Performances and Durability 244

6.5 Limitations and Challenges 253

6.6 Specific OperationModes 259

List of Terms 262

Roman symbols 262

Greek Symbols 263

Abbreviations 264

References 264

7 Hydrogen Storage Options Including Constraints and Challenges 273
Agata Godula-Jopek

7.1 Introduction 273

7.2 Liquid Hydrogen 276

7.3 Compressed Hydrogen 281

7.4 Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen 284

7.5 Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Including Materials and System-Related Problems 286

7.6 Summary 304

References 306

8 Hydrogen: A Storage Means for Renewable Energies 311
Cyril Bourasseau and Benjamin Guinot

8.1 Introduction 311

8.2 Hydrogen: A Storage Means for Renewable Energies (RE) 312

8.3 Electrolysis Powered by Intermittent Energy: Technical Challenges, Impact on Performances and Reliability 327

8.4 Integration Schemes and Examples 351

8.5 Techno-Economic Assessment 362

8.6 The Role of Simulation for Economic Assessment 365

8.7 Conclusion 378

References 379

9 Outlook and Summary 383
Agata Godula-Jopek and Pierre Millet

9.1 Comparison ofWater Electrolysis Technologies 387

9.2 Technology Development Status and Main Manufacturers 387

9.3 Material and System Roadmap Specifications 390

References 393

Index 395