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IPTV Delivery Networks: Next Generation Architectures for Live and Video-on-Demand Services

IPTV Delivery Networks: Next Generation Architectures for Live and Video-on-Demand Services

Suliman Mohamed Fati (Editor), Saiful Azad (Editor), Al-Sakib Khan Pathan (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-39790-8

Apr 2018

392 pages

$100.99

Description

A guide to the current technologies related to the delivery process for both live and on-demand services within IPTV delivery networks

IPTV Delivery Networks is an important resource thatoffers an in-depth discussion to the IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) delivery networks for both live and on demand IPTV services.This important book also includes a review of the issues and challenges surrounding the delivery of IPTV over various emerging networking and communications technologies.

The authors — an international team of experts — introduce a framework for delivery network applicable for live and video-on-demand services. They review the fundamental issues of IPTV delivery networks and explore the QoS (Quality of Service) issue for IPTV delivery networks that highlights the questions of security and anomaly detection as related to quality. IPTV Delivery Networks also contains a discussion of the mobility issues and next-generation delivery networks. This guide captures the latest available and usable technologies in the field and:

  • Explores the technologies related to delivery process for both live (real time) and on demand services in highly accessible terms
  • Includes information on the history, current state and future of IPTV delivery
  • Reviews all the aspects of delivery networks including storage management, resource allocation, broadcasting, video compression, QoS and QoE
  • Contains information on current applications including Netflix (video on demand), BBC iPlayer (time-shifted IPTV) and live (real time) streaming

Written for both researchers and industrial experts in the field of IPTV delivery networks. IPTV Delivery Networks is a groundbreaking book that includes the most current information available on live and on demand IPTV services.

List of Contributors xvii

Editor Biographies xxi

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgement xxvii

Part I IPTV Delivery Networks Fundamentals 1

1 IPTV: Delivering TV Services over IP Networks 3
Suliman Mohamed Fati and Putra Sumari

1.1 Overview 3

1.2 Internet Protocol Television 4

1.3 Evolution of TV to IPTV 6

1.3.1 IPTV Services 7

1.3.2 IPTV Standardisation 8

1.3.3 General Architecture of IPTV 9

1.4 IPTV Delivery Network 10

1.5 Evolution of the Delivery Network 11

1.5.1 IPTV Delivery Network Characteristics and Challenges 15

1.6 The Key Issues of IPTV Delivery Networks 17

1.7 Conclusion 18

References 19

2 IPTV Streaming Classification 25
Miguel Masciopinto, Pedro Comesaña, and Fernando Pérez-González

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Framework 29

2.2.1 IPTV Description 30

2.2.2 IPTV Bitrate Footprint 32

2.3 Classification Scheme 33

2.3.1 SVM Classifier 36

2.4 Experimental Setup 36

2.4.1 Database Construction 37

2.4.2 Training/Test Set-Partitioning 38

2.4.3 Classification Performance Measures 41

2.5 Experimental Results 44

2.5.1 TSS vs. OFS Classification 45

2.5.2 TSS Ternary (DVD vs. DVB-S vs. DVB-T) Classification 47

2.5.3 TSS Binary (DVB-S vs. DVB-T) Classification 50

2.5.4 OFS Binary (DVB-S vs. DVB-T) Classification 53

2.5.5 Relevance of the Used Statistics 55

2.6 Conclusions 59

Acknowledgement 60

References 60

3 Efficient IPTV Delivery over EPON 65
AliAkbar Nikoukar, I-Shyan Hwang, and Andrew Tanny Liem

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Broadband Access Network Technologies 67

3.3 Live IPTV Delivery over EPON 76

3.3.1 Hardware Architecture 78

3.3.2 Multicast Protocol Design 80

3.3.3 Pre-request Broadcasting Mechanism 81

3.3.4 Performance evaluation 85

3.4 Conclusions 88

References 88

4 Content Awareness in IPTV Delivery Networks 93
Suliman Mohamed Fati and Putra Sumari

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 The Key Challenges in IPTV Delivery Networks 97

4.2.1 Request Distribution Algorithms in IPTV Delivery Networks 97

4.2.2 Cost Reduction in IPTV Delivery Networks 102

4.2.2.1 Replica Placement Schemes in IPTV Delivery Networks 103

4.2.2.2 Resource Allocation Schemes in IPTV Delivery Networks 105

4.3 Content Status Issue in IPTV Delivery Networks 108

4.3.1 Unawareness of Content Status in Replica Placement Schemes 109

4.3.2 Unawareness of Content Status in Request Distribution Algorithms 110

4.3.3 Unawareness of Content Status in Resource Allocation 110

4.4 IPTV Content Status Modelling: A New Direction 111

4.4.1 IPTV Content Status Modelling 112

4.4.2 Experimental Results 114

4.5 Conclusion 118

References 119

Part II QoS and QoE for IPTV Delivery Networks 127

5 Zapping Delay Reduction in IPTV Systems 129
Alireza Abdollahpouri

5.1 Introduction 129

5.2 A Review of the Existing Studies 131

5.2.1 Reduce I-Frame Acquisition Delay 131

5.2.1.1 Use Additional Stream 131

5.2.1.2 Inserting Extra I-Frames and Reduction in the Size of GOP 132

5.2.2 Prediction-Based Mechanisms 133

5.2.3 Techniques Based on Scalable Video Coding 134

5.2.4 Techniques Based on IGMP Schemes 134

5.3 Prediction-Based PrejoiningMethod inWiMAX Networks 136

5.3.1 Modelling the Behaviour of a Single IPTV User, During an ON Session 137

5.4 Performance Evaluation 142

5.5 Future Directions for Research 146

5.6 Conclusion 147

References 147

6 Channel-Zapping Time in IPTV: Challenges and Solutions 151
Sajjad Zare, SeyyedMohammad Hosseini Verki, and Akbar Ghaffarpour Rahbar

6.1 Introduction 151

6.1.1 IPTV Network Infrastructure 151

6.1.1.1 Basic IPTV System 152

6.1.1.2 IP Multicast in IPTV Architecture 153

6.1.1.3 P2P IPTV Architecture 153

6.1.2 Business Models 154

6.1.2.1 Free to Air (FTA) 154

6.1.2.2 PPV 155

6.1.2.3 Subscription 155

6.1.2.4 A La Carte 155

6.2 Challenges in Channel-Zapping Time 155

6.2.1 Jitter 156

6.2.2 Limited Bandwidth 156

6.2.3 Elements of Zapping Delay 156

6.3 Proposed Methods for Reducing Channel-Zapping Time 158

6.3.1 Client-Based Methods 158

6.3.1.1 Pre-Joining Neighbouring Channels 158

6.3.1.2 Tracking User Behaviour 159

6.3.1.3 Ordering Pre-Join Channels in the List 161

6.3.2 Content-Based Methods 163

6.3.3 Network-Based Methods 167

6.3.3.1 Improving Zap Response Time for IPTV 169

6.3.3.2 A Novel Channel Switching Scenario in Multicast IPTV Networks 169

6.3.3.3 IGMP for IPTV Services in Passive Optical Networks 170

6.3.3.4 Implementation of EIGMP for Fast IPTV Channel Change in GEPON 171

6.3.3.5 Advanced Scheme to Reduce IPTV Channel-Zapping Time 172

6.3.4.1 An Effective IPTV Channel Control Algorithm Considering Channel-Zapping Time and Network Utilisation 172

6.3.4.2 Multicast Instant Channel Change (ICC) in IPTV Systems 174

6.3.4.3 IPTV Channel Switching Delay Reduction Through Predicting Subscribers’ Behaviours and Preferences 175

6.3.5 Programme-Based Methods 176

6.4 Discussion 177

6.5 Summary 180

References 180

7 Delivering High-Definition IPTV Services over IP-Based Networks 185
Seongik Hong

7.1 Introduction 185

7.2 HD Video Compression 188

7.2.1 Issues for HD Video Transmission 188

7.2.1.1 Issue 1: Large Bandwidth Requirements 188

7.2.1.2 Issue 2: QoS 189

7.2.1.3 Issue 3: Network Responsiveness/Instant Channel Change 189

7.2.2 Solutions 190

7.2.2.1 Solution 1: Solving Large Bandwidth Requirements 190

7.2.2.2 Solution 2-1: QoS: Protocols and Networks 192

7.2.2.3 Solution 2-2: QoS: Reducing Packet Loss 194

7.2.2.4 Solution 3: Solving Instant Channel Change Issue 197

7.3 Future Trends 198

7.4 Conclusion 199

References 199

8 IPTV Network Security: Threats and Countermeasures 203
M. S. A. Noman Ranak, Saiful Azad, B. M. F. Kamal Ruhee, N. Nourin Nisa, Nazrul Kabir,MohammedMostafizur Rahman, and Kamal Z. Zamli

8.1 Introduction 203

8.2 Threats on IPTV Delivery Networks 204

8.2.1 Theft or Abuse of Network Assets 206

8.2.2 Theft of Service 206

8.2.3 Theft of IPTV-Related Data 208

8.2.4 Disruption of Service 208

8.2.5 Privacy Breach 209

8.2.6 Compromise of Platform Integrity 209

8.3 Security Issues of IPTV Delivery Networks 209

8.3.1 Protocols Vulnerabilities 214

8.3.1.1 IGMP 215

8.3.1.2 PIM 215

8.3.1.3 MBGP 216

8.3.1.4 MSDP 217

8.3.1.5 RTP and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) 218

8.4 Countering theThreats 219

8.5 Open Research Issues 221

8.6 Conclusions 222

References 222

9 Anomaly Detection and Big Data in IPTV Networks 225
Mohiuddin Ahmed andMd. Niaz-Ul Haque

9.1 Introduction 225

9.1.1 Chapter Roadmap 227

9.2 Complex Data in IPTV Networks 228

9.3 Anomaly in the Context of IPTV Networks 229

9.3.1 HHH 230

9.3.2 Succinct Hierarchical Heavy Hitter (SHHH) 231

9.3.3 Time Series 231

9.3.4 Definition of Anomaly 231

9.4 A Case Study of Anomaly Detection Technique in IPTV Networks 232

9.4.1 Limitations of Anomaly Detection in IPTV Networks 233

9.4.2 Experimental Data 234

9.4.3 Experimental Analysis 235

9.5 Future Research Directions: Big Data 235

9.5.1 Three Vs of Big Data 235

9.5.2 Big Data in the IPTV Industry 237

9.5.3 The Challenges Associated with Big Data in IPTV 239

9.5.4 Contributions of IPTV Service Providers in the Realm of Big Data 241

9.6 Conclusions 242

References 243

Part III Mobility and Next-Generation Delivery Networks 245

10 Taxonomy of Intra-Domain Mobility Management Schemes inWirelessMesh Network for ImplementingMobile IPTV 247
Abhishek Majumder, Subhrajyoti Deb, and Sudipta Roy

10.1 Introduction 247

10.2 Classification 250

10.2.1 Tunnelling-Based Schemes 251

10.2.1.1 ANT 251

10.2.1.2 Mesh Mobility Management (M3) 253

10.2.1.3 Static Anchor Scheme 255

10.2.1.4 Dynamic Anchor Scheme 256

10.2.1.5 SMR-Based Scheme 257

10.2.2 Routing-Based Schemes 258

10.2.2.1 Infrastructure Mesh (iMesh) 258

10.2.2.2 OLSR-FastSync 259

10.2.2.3 Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector and Mesh and Mesh Networks with MObility Management (AODV-MEMO) 260

10.2.2.4 Mobile Party 263

10.2.2.5 Wireless Mesh Mobility Management (WMM) 264

10.2.2.6 LMMesh 265

10.2.2.7 Forward Pointer-Based Routing (FPBR) 266

10.2.3 Multicasting-Based Scheme 267

10.2.3.1 SMesh 267

10.3 Advantages and Disadvantages 268

10.4 Open Research Issues 279

10.5 Conclusion 280

Acknowledgement 280

References 280

11 TowardsMulti-Operator IPTV Services Over 5G Networks 283
Gergely Biczók, Manos Dramitinos, Håkon Lønsethagen, LuisM. Contreras, George D. Stamoulis, and Laszlo Toka

11.1 Introduction 283

11.2 Single-Provider IPTV Services 284

11.2.1 Customer-Centric Challenges and Technical Issues 285

11.2.2 Business Issues and Challenges 288

11.2.3 Operators’ Solutions and Architecture 290

11.3 IPX Multi-Service Internetworking 293

11.4 Multi-Operator IPTV Services in 5G Networks 294

11.4.1 Technical Issues and Challenges 295

11.4.1.1 SDN and NFV Exploitation 295

11.4.1.2 Lack of QoS Assurance – SLAs 296

11.4.1.3 Lack of Monitoring and SLA-Based Rewards 297

11.4.1.4 Wholesale and Retail Market Coordination 297

11.4.1.5 Pricing and Charging Layers 299

11.4.2 Business Issues and Challenges 300

11.4.2.1 Generic Issues and Challenges 300

11.4.2.2 IPTV Distribution of ‘Small/Medium‘ Live Events 302

11.4.2.3 User-Generated Content 303

11.4.3 Solutions and Architecture: The 5GEx Approach 304

11.4.3.1 5GEx Exchange: An Open Multi-Service Internetworking Approach 304

11.4.3.2 Roadmap and Coordination Models 307

11.4.3.3 Pricing and Charging Solutions 308

11.5 Future Research 310

11.6 Conclusions 311

Acknowledgement 312

References 312

12 Technologies and Architectures for Future IP Television Services 315
Lucile Sassatelli and Marie-José Montpetit

12.1 Introduction 315

12.2 The Evolution of Users’ Experience: Usage, Expectations and Reluctances 316

12.2.1 Broadcast Versus OTT: Towards a Spurious Opposition 316

12.2.2 The Multi-Screen Multi-Device Anywhere Experience 317

12.2.3 Business Experiences and Inevitable Evolution for the Stakeholders 319

12.3 Architectural Evolution of IPTV: Towards a Smart Meld with OTT 320

12.3.1 The Main Overhauls of IPTV: HTML5, Cloudification, Software-Defined Video 320

12.3.2 Legacy IPTV Extending its Reach by Inspiring OTT Evolution: Multicast, Caching, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) 323

12.3.3 Coordinating the OTT delivery entities to enforce IPTV-like quality of experience: Collaboration between ISPs, CDNs and CPs 329

12.4 Technical focus 331

12.4.1 P2P assistance to CDNs, caching and ICN 332

12.4.2 TheWireless Video Challenge: In-HomeWiFi and Offloading of Cellular Networks 335

12.4.3 VR: The greatest technological challenge ahead? 337

References 338

Contributor Biographies 345

Index 357