This book will focus on delivering a fully reproducible approach to aid readers’ understanding of digital image processing - when the maths is too hard, the MATLAB demos will help conceptual understanding as the outcome can be visualized by playing with the demo, and when implementation is too ad-hoc, mathematical models can help the reader reach an understanding of the fundamentals. The book will be structured into 3 parts representing the main classes of views: 1. Local View: Geometry; 2. Nonlocal View: Redefining Neighbourhood and Part 3. Hierarchical View: Towards Invariant Representations. These 3 classes of views have given rise to a rich body of mathematical models and a variety of image analysis and processing technologies, e.g. segmentation, interpolation, compression, restoration and enhancement, which have been widely used in many real-world applications from medical imaging and remote sensing to consumer electronics and multimedia communications.