DescriptionDescribing advanced detectors and their visualization and investigation techniques, this book presents the major applications in nuclear and high-energy physics, astrophysics, medicine and radiation measurements.
I.1. Why is it necessary to detect photons and charged particles?
(from the structure of the matter and universe to practical applications)
I.2. Principle of radiation interaction with gases
I.3. History of developments and traditional position-sensitive gaseous detectors:
a) Spark chambers
b) Multi-wire proportional chambers. Why multi-wire proportional chambers revolutionized the detector developments?
c) Parallel-plate chambers
d) Resistive plate chambers (RPCs)
e) Time-projection chambers
f) Gas scintillation detectors and light emission chambers
II. Operational Physics of Gaseous Detectors
1. Townsend avalanches
2. Proportional mode of operation
3. Physics of photon and ion feedbacks
4. Geiger mode of operation
5. Streamers and breakdowns
6. Maximum achievable gas gains and the Raether limit
7. Operation at very high counting rates and the cathode excitement effect
8. Optimization of gas mixtures for the needs of particular measurements or requirements.
III. Recent Developments
III.1.Photosensitive gaseous detectors
1. Multi-wire chambers filled with photosensitive gases
2. Multi-wire and parallel-plate chambers combined with solid photocathodes
III.2. Micropattern gaseous detectors-a new revolution in the detector developments
1. Microstrip gas chambers
2. Microdot gas chambers
3. Microgap parallel-plate chambers and MICROMEGAS
4. Capillary plates, GEMs, GEMs with resistive electrodes
5. LEAK detector and other new designs of micropattern gaseous detectors
6. Operational physics of micropattern gaseous detectors
a) What determines the maximum achievable gain in the micropattern gaseous detectors?
b) Raether limit in the case of the micropattern detectors
c) Cathode excitement effect
7. New possibilities in measurements offered by micropattern gaseous detectors
a) Very high position resolution detectors
b) Micropattern photo-detectors
IV. Applications of Position-Sensitive Gaseous Detectors
1. High energy physics (latest applications of position gaseous detectors in high energy physics experiments for tracking, muon detection and Cherenkov light detection)
2. Astrophysics and search of dark matter (flight and ground experiments)
3. Plasma diagnostics
4. Medicine and biology (full body x-ray scanners, heart diagnostics, mammographic scanners, portal imaging devices for advanced radiotherapy, biological imaging devices, PETs (RPC and high pressure capillary tubes)
5. Industrial and homeland security (crystallographic industrial imaging devices, airport x-ray scanners, muon tomography, UV visualization; recent developments: Rn and Po monitors, detectors of flames and dangerous gases)
The role of gaseous detectors in the greatest scientific discoveries, important applications, their possible future and their place with respect to other position-sensitive detectors (solid state, vacuum, liquid?).
"Each of us will find in this book some corner of our own memory, the significance of our own gaseous detector in recent and current experiments, together with a touch of the new in exploring the many possible applications of gas counters in medicine, biology or homeland security and – when closing the book – the compelling need to stay in the lab. Chapeau!." (CERN Courier, 26 April 2013)