Skip to main content

In Situ Tests in Geotechnical Engineering

In Situ Tests in Geotechnical Engineering

Jacques Monnet

ISBN: 978-1-848-21849-9

Dec 2015, Wiley-ISTE

398 pages

In Stock

$135.00

Description

This book deals with in-situ tests that are performed in geotechnics to identify and characterize the soil. These measurements are then used to size the Civil Engineering works

This book is intended for engineers, students and geotechnical researchers. It provides useful information for use and optimal use of in-situ tests to achieve a better book adaptation of civil engineering on the ground

Foreword xi

Symbols and Notations xv

Introduction xxvii

Chapter 1. Measuring Water Content and Density 1

1.1. Sample collection method 1

1.1.1. Measuring water content using the frying pan method 1

1.1.2. Measuring water content using the oven-dry method 1

1.1.3. Measuring dry density using a membrane densitometer 2

1.1.4. Measuring dry density using the excavation method 4

1.2. Method without sample collection 4

Chapter 2. Soil and Rock Sampling Methods 7

2.1. Sampling classes and nomenclature 7

2.2. Sampling techniques 8

2.2.1. Manual samples 9

2.2.2. Core drilling 12

2.2.3. Semi-destructive drills 19

2.2.4. Destructive drills 23

2.3. The procedures 23

2.3.1. Sample collection methods 24

2.3.2. The choice of sampling technique 25

2.3.3. Labeling samples 30

2.3.4. Transporting the samples 32

2.3.5. Storage before testing of class 1 and 3 samples 32

2.3.6. Competence of the providers 32

2.3.7. Checking: controls 33

2.3.8. Sampling written record 34

2.4. The drilling section 35

2.5. The rock-quality designation (RQD) 37

Chapter 3. Measuring the Total Pressuring, the Interstitial Pressure and the Groundwater Table Rating 39

3.1. Measuring the total pressure within the soil 39

3.1.1. Measurement principles 39

3.1.2. Mode of action of the sensors 39

3.1.3. Deformation measuring systems 40

3.1.4. Soil-sensor interaction 41

3.1.5. Other measuring errors 44

3.1.6. Examples of total pressure sensors 50

3.2. Measuring the interstitial pressure and the level of the water table 50

3.2.1. Open-tubed piezometer 51

3.2.2. Closed-tube piezometer 52

Chapter 4. Measuring Movement, Settling and Force 55

4.1. Measuring movement 55

4.1.1. Topography 55

4.1.2. Measuring distance directly 61

4.1.3. The inclinometry technique 63

4.2. Measuring the settlement 67

4.2.1. Plate settling gauge 68

4.2.2. Hydraulic settling gauge 69

4.2.3. Magnetic settling gauge 70

4.3. Force transducers 71

Chapter 5. Static Loading Tests 73

5.1. Plate loading test 73

5.1.1. Low-pressure loading test 73

5.1.2. High-pressure loading test 80

5.2. Static pile-loading test 83

5.2.1. Test principle 83

5.2.2. Practical realization of the test 86

5.2.3. Loading cycles 94

5.2.4. Pile-test interpretation 98

5.3. In conclusion: pile-loading tests 103

Chapter 6. Tests by Flat Dilatometer (DMT) 105

6.1. Principle of the test 106

6.2. Modus operandi 107

6.3. Interpretation 109

Chapter 7. Penetrometer Test (CPT, CPTU, SPT, DCPT) and Variants 113

7.1. Static penetrometer (or cone penetrometer test, CPT) 114

7.1.1. Principle of the test 114

7.1.2. Measurement methods 118

7.1.3. Interpretation 119

7.1.4. Use of the static penetrometer to calculate foundations 120

7.1.5. Types of static penetrometer 122

7.2. The piezocone (CPTU) 127

7.2.1. Principle of the test 127

7.2.2. Modus operandi 128

7.2.3. Interpretation 132

7.2.4. Exploitation of the test 134

7.3. Standard penetration test (SPT) 135

7.3.1. Principle of the test 136

7.3.2. Modus operandi 137

7.3.3. Interpretation of SPT 141

7.4. The dynamic penetrometer (DCPT) 146

7.4.1. Principle of the test 148

7.4.2. Modus operandi 148

7.4.3. Interpretation 154

7.4.4. Use of dynamic penetration in the calculation of the foundation 154

7.4.5. Comparison between the results of the static and dynamic penetrometers 155

Chapter 8. Direct Shear Tests In Situ 157

8.1. Direct shear box test 157

8.2. The vane test (VST) 159

8.2.1. Principle of the test 159

8.2.2. Practical realization of the test 161

8.2.3. Interpretation: determining the undrained cohesion 163

8.2.4. Exploitation complement of the vane test 167

8.3. The Philiponnat phicomètre 169

8.3.1. Principle of the test 169

8.3.2. Practical realization of the test 171

8.3.3. Interpretation 172

8.3.4. Advantages and disadvantages of the phicometric test 174

Chapter 9. Pressuremeter Tests (PMT, SBP) and Variants 175

9.1. Ménard pressuremeter test (PMT) 176

9.1.1. Principle of the test 176

9.1.2. Execution of the test 177

9.1.3. Normalized interpretation of the standard and cyclical tests 190

9.2. Self-drilling pressuremeter test (SBP) 193

9.2.1. Principle of the test 193

9.2.2. Execution of the test 197

9.2.3. Evaluation of the tests 198

9.3. The dilatometer 198

9.3.1. Description 198

9.3.2. Interpretation of the results 201

9.4. The “Géomécamètre” 203

9.4.1. Principle of the test 203

9.4.2. Modus operandi 205

9.4.3. Interpretation 206

9.5. Theoretical interpretation of the pressuremeter test 207

9.5.1. Cohesive soil: the Baguelin et al. (1972) interpretation 207

9.5.2. Cohesive soil: Monnet and Chemaa (1995) interpretation 214

9.5.3. Granular soil: the Monnet and Khlif (1994) and Monnet (2012) interpretations 226

Chapter 10. Water Tests in Soils 243

10.1. Punctual water tests 244

10.1.1. Infiltrometer test 244

10.1.2. Lefranc permeability test 249

10.1.3. Permeability test in borehole current section 259

10.1.4. Lugeon permeability test 266

10.2. Pumping or transmission tests 275

10.2.1. Principle of the test 275

10.2.2. Execution of the test 276

10.2.3. Interpretation 286

Chapter 11. Characterization of Sites and Soils by In Situ Tests 291

11.1. Characterization of sites 291

11.1.1. Analysis by drilling parameter recording 291

11.1.2. Cluster analysis 299

11.2. Characterization of soils 303

11.2.1. Identification of the soils 303

11.2.2. Physical and mechanical parameters 305

11.2.3. Correlations and relations between the characteristics measured in the laboratory 306

11.2.4. Correlations involving in situ tests 313

11.2.5. Relations involving in situ tests 333

Bibliography 345

Index 359