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In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts

In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts




Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste.

In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts features contributions from leading experts in the field of catalysis. It begins with an introduction to the fundamentals and then covers:

  • Characterization of electronic and structural properties of catalysts using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy
  • Techniques for structural characterization based on X-ray diffraction, neutron scattering, and pair distribution function analysis
  • Microscopy and morphological studies
  • Techniques for studying the interaction of adsorbates with catalyst surfaces, including infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, EPR, and moderate pressure XPS
  • Integration of techniques that provide information on the structural properties of catalysts with techniques that facilitate the study of surface reactions

Throughout the book, detailed examples illustrate how techniques for studying catalysts and reaction mechanisms can be applied to solve a broad range of problems in heterogeneous catalysis. Detailed figures help readers better understand how and why the techniques discussed in the book work. At the end of each chapter, an extensive set of references leads to the primary literature in the field.

By explaining step by step modern techniques for the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, this book enables chemical scientists and engineers to better understand catalyst behavior and design new catalysts for green, sustainable fuel and chemical production.

Contributors vii

Introduction: Goals and Challenges for the In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts 1
José A. Rodriguez, Jonathan C. Hanson, and Peter J. Chupas

1 QEXAFS in Catalysis Research: Principles, Data Analysis, and Applications 23
Anatoly I. Frenkel, Syed Khalid, Jonathan C. Hanson, and Maarten Nachtegaal

2 Spatially Resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy 49
Christian G. Schroer and Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt

3 Energy-Dispersive EXAFS: Principles and Application in Heterogeneous Catalysis 75
Mark A. Newton and Andrew J. Dent

4 In-situ Powder X-ray Diffraction in Heterogeneous Catalysis 121
Jonathan Hanson and Poul Norby

5 Pair Distribution Function Analysis of High-Energy X-ray Scattering Data 147
Karena W. Chapman and Peter J. Chupas

6 Neutron Scattering for In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysis 169
Ashfi a Huq and Wei-Ren Chen

7 Visualization of Surface Structures of Heterogeneous Catalysts under Reaction Conditions or during Catalysis with High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 191
Luan Nguyen, Shiran Zhang, Yingchun Ye, Yuan Zhu, Lei Wang, and Franklin (Feng) Tao

8 In-situ Infrared Spectroscopy on Model Catalysts 209
Kumudu Mudiyanselage and Darío J. Stacchiola

9 Infrared Spectroscopy on Powder Catalysts 241
Eli Stavitski

10 Structural Characterization of Catalysts by Operando Raman Spectroscopy 267
Gerhard Mestl and Miguel A. Bañares

11 In-situ Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Powder Catalysts 293
Angelika Brückner

12 Application of Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy for the In-situ Investigation of Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions 315
David E. Starr, Hendrik Bluhm, Zhi Liu, Axel Knop-Gericke, and Michael Hävecker

13 Combined X-ray Diffraction and Absorption Spectroscopy in Catalysis Research: Techniques and Applications 345
Anatoly I. Frenkel and Jonathan C. Hanson

14 Combining Infrared Spectroscopy with X-ray Techniques for Interrogating Heterogeneous Catalysts 369
Mark A. Newton and Marcos Fernández-García

15 XRD–Raman and Modulation Excitation Spectroscopy 411
Wouter van Beek, Atsushi Urakawa, and Marco Milanesio

16 Catalyst Imaging Using Synchrotron-Based Multitechnique Approaches 441
Andrew M. Beale, Javier Ruiz-Martinez, and Bert M. Weckhuysen

Index 475