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Indoor Positioning: Technologies and Performance

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Indoor Positioning: Technologies and Performance

Nel Samama

ISBN: 978-1-119-42184-9 July 2019 Wiley-IEEE Press 300 Pages

Description

Provides technical and scientific descriptions of potential approaches used to achieve indoor positioning, ranging from sensor networks to more advanced radio-based systems

This book presents a large technical overview of various approaches to achieve indoor positioning. These approaches cover those based on sensors, cameras, satellites, and other radio-based methods. The book also discusses the simplification of certain implementations, describing ways for the reader to design solutions that respect specifications and follow established techniques. Descriptions of the main techniques used for positioning, including angle measurement, distance measurements, Doppler measurements, and inertial measurements are also given.

Indoor Positioning: Technologies and Performance starts with overviews of the first age of navigation, the link between time and space, the radio age, the first terrestrial positioning systems, and the era of artificial satellites. It then introduces readers to the subject of indoor positioning, as well as positioning techniques and their associated difficulties. Proximity technologies like bar codes, image recognition, Near Field Communication (NFC), and QR codes are covered—as are room restricted and building range technologies. The book examines wide area indoor positioning as well as world wide indoor technologies like High-Sensitivity and Assisted GNSS, and covers maps and mapping. It closes with the author's vision of the future in which the practice of indoor positioning is perfected across all technologies. This text:

  • Explores aspects of indoor positioning from both theoretical and practical points of view
  • Describes advantages and drawbacks of various approaches to positioning
  • Provides examples of design solutions that respect specifications of tested techniques
  • Covers infra-red sensors, lasers, Lidar, RFID, UWB, Bluetooth, Image SLAM, LiFi, WiFi, indoor GNSS, and more

Indoor Positioning is an ideal guide for technical engineers, industrial and application developers, and students studying wireless communications and signal processing.

Preface

Acknowledgements

Introduction

An attempt to clarify the problem

Comments for a deployment in real conditions

Conclusion

Chapter 1 - A little piece of history …

1.1 - The first age of navigation

1.2 - The longitude problem and the importance of time

1.3 - The link between time and space

1.3.1 – A brief history of the evolution of the perception of time

1.3.2 – Comparison with the possible change in our perception of space

1.4 – The radio age

1.5 - The first terrestrial positioning systems

1.6 - The era of artificial satellites

1.7 – The new problem: availability and accuracy of positioning systems

1.8 – References

Chapter 2 - What is exactly the indoor positioning problem?

2.1 – General introduction to indoor positioning

2.1.1 – The basic problem: example of the navigation application

2.1.2 – The “perceived” needs

2.1.3 – The wide range of possible technologies

2.1.4 – Comments on the “best” solution

2.2 – Is indoor positioning the next “longitude problem”?

2.3 – A quick summary of the indoor problem

2.4 - References

Chapter 3 - A general introduction to positioning techniques, and their associated difficulties

3.1 – Angle based positioning technique

3.1.1 – Pure Angle based positioning technique

3.1.2 – Triangulation based positioning technique

3.2 – Distance based positioning technique

3.2.1 – Distances to known environment based positioning technique

3.2.2 – The Radar method

3.2.3 - The hyperbolic method

3.2.4 - Mobile telecommunication networks

3.3 – Doppler based positioning approach

3.3.1 – The Doppler Radar method

3.3.2 – The Doppler positioning approach

3.4 – Physical quantity based positioning approaches

3.4.1 – Luminosity measurements

3.4.2 – Local networks

3.4.3 – Attitude and heading reference system

3.4.3.1 - Accelerometers

3.4.3.2 – Gyro meters

3.4.3.3 – Odometers 

3.4.3.4 – Magnetometers 

3.5 – Image based positioning approach

3.6 - ILS, MLS, VOR, DME

3.7 - Summary

3.8 - References

Chapter 4 - Various possible classifications of indoor technologies

4.1 – The parameters to consider

4.2 – Discussion about these parameters

4.2.1 - Parameters related to the hardware of the system

4.2.2 - Parameters related to the type and performances of the system

4.2.3 - Parameters related to the real implementation of the system

4.2.4 - Parameters related to the physical aspects of the system

4.3 – The technologies considered

4.4 – The complete tables

4.5 – Playing with the complete table

4.6 – The selected approach for the rest of the book

4.7 - References

Chapter 5 - Proximity technologies: approaches, performance and limitations

5.1 – The Bar Codes

5.2 – Contactless cards and credit cards

5.3 – Image recognition

5.4 – Near Field Communication - NFC

5.5 – The QR Codes

5.6 – Discussion of other technologies

5.7 - References

Chapter 6 - Room restricted technologies: challenges and reliability

6.1 – Image markers

6.2 – Infra-red sensors

6.3 – Laser

6.4 – Lidar

6.5 – Sonar

6.6 – Ultra sound sensors

6.7 - References

Chapter 7 – “Set of rooms” technologies

7.1 – The radar

7.2 – The RFID

7.3 – The UWB

7.4 - References

Chapter 8 - Building range technologies

8.1 – Accelerometer

8.2 – Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy

8.3 – Gyro meter

8.4 – Image relative displacement

8.5 – Image SLAM

8.6 – LiFi

8.7 – Light opportunity

8.8 – Sound

8.9 – Theodolite

8.10 – WiFi

8.11 – Symbolic WiFi

8.12 - References

Chapter 9 - Building range technologies: the specific case of Indoor GNSS

9.1 – Introduction

9.2 - The concept of local transmitters

9.3 - Pseudolites

9.4 - Repeaters

9.4.1 - The clock bias approach

9.4.2 - The pseudo ranges approach

9.5 - The repealites

9.5.1 - The proposed system architecture

9.5.2 - The advantages

9.5.3 - The limitations

9.6 - The Grin-Locs

9.6.1 - The Double Antenna

9.6.2 - Resolution in Case of a Plurality of Double Antennas

9.7 – References

Chapter 10 - Wide area indoor positioning: block, city and county approaches

10.1 – Introduction

10.2 – Amateur radio

10.3 – The ISM radio bands (433/868/… MHz)

10.4 – The mobile networks

10.4.1 - The first networks (GSM)

10.4.2 - The modern networks (3G, 4G and 5G)

10.5 – The LoRa and SigFox

10.6 – The AM/FM radio

10.7 – The TV

10.8 - References

Chapter 11 - World Wide indoor positioning technologies: achievable performance

11.1 – The Argos and Cospas-Sarsat systems

11.1.1 – The Argos system

11.1.2 – The COSPAS-SARSAT system

11.2 – The GNSS

11.3 – High accuracy GNSS

11.3.1 – HS-GNSS

11.3.2 – A-GNSS

11.4 – The magnetometer

11.5 – Pressure sensor

11.6 – The radio signals of opportunity

11.7 – Wired networks

11.8 - References

Chapter 12 - Combining techniques and technologies

12.1 – Introduction

12.2 – Fusion and hybridization

12.2.1 - Strategies for combining technologies

12.2.2 - Strategies for choosing the optimal data

12.2.3 - Classification and estimators

12.2.4 - Filtering

12.3 – Collaborative approaches

12.3.1 - Approach using Doppler measurements to estimate velocities

12.3.2 - Approach using Doppler measurements in case some nodes are fixed

12.3.3 - Approach using Doppler measurements to estimate angles

12.3.4 - Approach using distance measurements

12.3.5 - Approach analyzing the deformation of the network

12.3.6 - Comments

12.4 – General discussion

12.5 - References

Chapter 13 - Maps

13.1 – A map: not just an image

13.2 – Indoor poses specific problems

13.3 – Map representations

13.4 – Input tools

13.5 – Some examples of the use of interior mapping

13.5.1 - Some guiding applications

13.5.2 - Some services associated with mapping

13.6 – Synthesis

13.7 - References

Chapter 14 - Synthesis and possible forthcoming “evolution”

14.1 – Indoor positioning: signals of opportunity or local infrastructure?

14.1.1 - A few constrained selections

14.1.2 - Comparison of three approaches and discussion

14.2 - Discussion

14.3 – The possible evolution of everybody’s daily life

14.3.1 – A student’s day

14.3.2 – Improving an out-patient’s visit to hospital

14.3.3 – The flow of people in public places

14.4 – Internet of Things and Internet of Everything

14.5 – Possible future approaches

14.6 – Conclusion

14.7 – References