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Industrial Environmental Management: Engineering, Science, and Policy

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Industrial Environmental Management: Engineering, Science, and Policy

Tapas K. Das

ISBN: 978-1-119-59158-0 February 2020 624 Pages

Hardcover
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$185.00
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Description

Provides aspiring engineers with pertinent information and technological methodologies on how best to manage industry's modern-day environment concerns

This book explains why industrial environmental management is important to human environmental interactions and describes what the physical, economic, social, and technological constraints to achieving the goal of a sustainable environment are. It emphasizes recent progress in life-cycle sustainable design, applying green engineering principles and the concept of Zero Effect Zero Defect to minimize wastes and discharges from various manufacturing facilities. Its goal is to educate engineers on how to obtain an optimum balance between environmental protections, while allowing humans to maintain an acceptable quality of life.  

Industrial Environmental Management: Engineering, Science, and Policy covers topics such as industrial wastes, life cycle sustainable design, lean manufacturing, international environmental regulations, and the assessment and management of health and environmental risks. The book also looks at the economics of manufacturing pollution prevention; how eco-industrial parks and process intensification will help minimize waste; and the application of green manufacturing principles in order to minimize wastes and discharges from manufacturing facilities.

  • Provides end-of-chapter questions along with a solutions manual for adopting professors
  • Covers a wide range of interdisciplinary areas that makes it suitable for different branches of engineering such as wastewater management and treatment; pollutant sampling; health risk assessment; waste minimization; lean manufacturing; and regulatory information
  • Shows how industrial environmental management is connected to areas like sustainable engineering, sustainable manufacturing, social policy, and more
  • Contains theory, applications, and real-world problems along with their solutions
  • Details waste recovery systems 

Industrial Environmental Management: Engineering, Science, and Policy is an ideal textbook for junior and senior level students in multidisciplinary engineering fields such as chemical, civil, environmental, and petroleum engineering. It will appeal to practicing engineers seeking information about sustainable design principles and methodology.   

About the author

Preface

Acknowledgement

1 Why Industrial Environmental Management?

1.1 Introduction

1.2 International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in Brief

1.2.1 ISO and the Environment

1.2.2 Benefits

1.3 Environmental Management in Industries

1.3.1 Environmental Challenges

1.3.2 Waste as Pollution

1.4 Defining Pollution Prevention

1.4.1 Resource Efficiency

1.5 The Zero Defect and Zero Effect Paradigm

1.6 Zero Discharge Industries

1.7 Sustainability, Industrial Ecology and Zero Discharge

1.8 Why Zero Discharge is Critical to Sustainability

1.9 New Role of Process Engineers and Engineering Firms

1.9.1 Mini Case Study: Beer to Mushroom – Focusing on the Productivity of Raw Materials

1.10 Zero Discharge (Emission) Methodology

1.10.1 Analyze Throughput

1.10.2 Inventory Inputs and Outputs

1.10.3 Build Industrial Cluster

1.10.4 Develop Conversion Technologies

1.10.5 Designer Wastes

1.10.6 Reinvent Regulatory Policies

1.11 Making the Transition

1.11.1 Recycling of Materials and Reuse of Products

1.11.2 Dematerialization

1.11.3 Investment Recovery

1.11.4 New Technologies and Materials

1.11.5 New Mindset

1.11.6 In the Full Zero Discharge (Emission) Paradigm

1.11.7 Mini-Case Study 1-2: Recovery of Waste for Palm Oil Extraction Yields High Return on Investment

1.12 Constraints and Challenges

1.13 The Structure of the Book

Discussions and Open-Ended Questions

References

2 Genesis of Environmental Problem Worldwide: International Environmental Regulations

2.1 Introduction

2.1.1 Environmental History

2.1.2 Genesis of the World Environmental Problem

2.1.3 Causes of Pollution and Environmental Degradation: Population Growth, and Poverty, Urbanization

2.2 Industrialization and Urbanization in the US

2.2.1 The Electric Grid and Improvements in Transportation

2.2.2 Structural Steel and Skyscraper; The Assembly Line

2.2.3 The Origin of Mass Production

2.2.4 Important Technological Developments: Textiles; Stem Power; Iron Making ; Invention of Machine Tools

2.3 Industrial Disasters

2.3.1 Bhopal: The World’s Worst Industrial Tragedy: What Happened that Evening?

2.3.2 Taj Mahal Acid Rain Attack

2.3.3 River Ganges and River Yamuna

2.3.4 Love Canal Tragedy

2.3.5 Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Coal Power Plant Toxic Ash Sludge Spill

2.3.6 Cuyahoga River Caught Fire

2.3.7 The Great Smog of London

2.4. Environmental Law

2.4.1 Pollution Control Laws: Air Quality Law

2.4.2 Water Quality Law

2.4.3 Waste Management Law

2.4.4 Contaminant Cleanup Law

2.4.5 Chemical Safety Laws

2.5 Resource Sustainability: Environmental Impact Assessment

2.6 Principles

2.6.1 Sustainable Development

2.7 Environmental Impact Statement and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

2.7.1 Purpose of NEPA

2.8 International Laws

2.8.1 Africa

2.8.2 Asia

2.8.3 European Union

2.8.4 Middle East

2.8.5 Oceania

2.8.6 Australia

2.8.7 Brazil; Ecuador

3.8.8 Canada

2.8.9 China

2.8.10 Egypt

2.8.11 Germany: Environmental Rules for Doing Business in Germany – Legal Requirements

2.9 India: The Legal and Regulatory Framework for Environmental Protection in India

2.10 General: Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1986

2.11 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987

2.11.1 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992

2.11.2 Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992

2.11.3 UN Convention on Desertification, 1994

2.11.4 Emerging Environmental Challenges

2.11.5 Japan

2.11.6 New Zealand

2.11.7 Russia

2.11.8 South Africa

2.11.9 United Kingdom

2.11.10 United States Environmental Laws

2.11.11 Vietnam

2.12 ISO 9000 and 14000

2.13 Examples

2.14 Problems

References

3 Industrial Wastes: Water, Air, Solid, Hazardous, and Nuclear Wastes from Industrial Sources

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Wastewater Sources

3.2.1 Point Source

3.2.2 Non-Point Source

3.3 Wastewater Characteristics

3.3.1 Physical Characteristics

3.4. Chemical Characteristics

3.5 Industrial Wastewater Variation: Pollution Load and Concentration

3.5.1 Industrial Pretreatment

3.6 Industrial Effluents

3.6.1 Wastewater Quality Indicators: Selected Pollution Parameters

3.6.2 Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demands

3.6.3 BOD, COD, Nitrogen, and Phosphates

3.6.4 Pollutant Concentration and Loading in Wastewater: Calculations and Examples

3.7 Industrial wastewater Treatment

3.7.1 Variation in Industrial Wastewaters

3.7.2 Pretreatment Program Purpose and Pretreatment Specific Goals

3.8 Major Sources of Air Emissions

3.8.1 US Clean Air Act and Amendments

3.8.2 Emission Factors and an AP-42 Emission Factors

3.8.3 Introduction to Air Pollution Control & Estimating Air Emission Rates with Examples

3.8.4 Criteria Air Pollutants

3.9 Air Quality; the Atmosphere and Unpolluted Air

3.9.1 Mobile Sources, Emission Inventory, and Inventory Techniques

3.10 Major Sources of Air Emissions

3.10.1 US Clean Air Act and 1990 Amendments

3.10.2 Introduction to Air Pollution Control & Estimating Air Emission Rates

3.10.3 Air Emission Factors and Air Emission Estimates and Examples using AP-42 Emission Factor

3.10.4 Criteria Air Pollutants

3.10.5 National Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants

3.10.6 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

3.11 The Ideal Gas Law and Concentration Measurements in Gases with Examples

3.11.1 Other Application of the Ideal Gas Law with Examples

3.11.2 Gas Flow Measurements at STP; Corrections of Percent Oxygen with Examples

3.11.3 Air-to-Fuel Ratio (AFR) and Stoichiometric Ratio with Examples

3.12 Industrial Wastes: Introduction

3.12.1 Waste as Pollution; Why Recycle?

3.12.2 Chemical Waste and Hazardous Waste

3.12.3 Hazardous Wastes in the USA

3.12.4 Hazardous Waste Mapping Systems

3.12.5 Universal Wastes and Final Disposal of Hazardous Waste

3.12.6 Recycling, Portland Cement

3.12.7 Incineration, Destruction and Waste-to-Energy

3.12.8 Hazardous Waste Landfills (Sequestering, Isolation, etc.); Pyrolysis

3.13 Radioactive Waste

3.13.1 Radioactive Waste Sources; Nuclear Fuel Cycle

3.13.3 Intermediate-Level Waste; High-Level Waste, and Transuranic Waste

3.13.4 Nuclear Waste Management; Initial Treatment: Vitrification and Ion Exchange

3.14 Problems

References

4 Industrial Wastewater, Air Pollution, And Solid & Hazardous Wastes: Monitoring, Permitting, Sample Collection & Analysis, QA/QC, Compliance with State and Federal Standards

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Industrial Process Water

4.2 Purposes and Objectives for Inspecting and sampling

4.2.1 Analytical Methods

4.2.2 State Waste Discharge Permit

4.2.3 NPDES Wastewater Discharge Permit

4.2.4 General Wastewater Discharge Permit

4.3 Quality Assurance and Quality Control

4.4 Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) Testing

4.4.1 Introduction

4.4.2 The WET Testing

4.4.3 Evaluation of Toxicity Test Results; Toxic Units and Examples

4.4.4 Application of Toxicity Test Results: Protection Against Acute Toxicity and Chronic Toxicity with Examples

4.4.5 Flow Measurements: Open Channel Flow; Closed Channel Flow; Electromagnetic Flow Meters with Examples

4.4.6 Water Quality Modeling

4.5 Wastewater Treatment Plant BOD, SS, Fecal Coliform removal Efficiencies: Meet water Quality Standards

4.5.1 NPDES Wastewater Discharge Permit for Point Sources with Examples

4.6 Air Pollution Perspective

4.6.1 Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permitting Process: Introduction

4.6.2 The PSD Program Goals

4.7 Best Available Control Technology: Introduction

4.7.1 Control Technology Requirement Definitions

4.8. Top-Down BACT Analysis

4.9 Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling; Atmospheric Layers

4.10 Gaussian Dispersion Model: Introduction, Theory and Example

4.11 Industrial Solid Wastes and Its Management; Why Recycle; What is Recycling

4.11.1 Identification and Characterization of Hazardous Waste; Listed Hazardous Wastes

4.11.2 RECRA Provisions; Cradle to Grave; Transportation of hazardous Waste

4.11.3 Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility Permits: Recycling, Portland cement, Incineration, Pyrolysis, Landfills and Examples

4.12 Industrial Waste Generation Rates: Generator Requirements and Responsibilities; Environmental Audits

4.13 Problems

References

5 Assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks: Industrial and Manufacturing Process Safety

5.1 Introduction

5.1.1 Health Risk Assessment

5.1.2 Air Pollution, Problem Formulation, and Examples

5.1.3 Exposure Assessment: Partition Coefficient, Exposure Point Concentrations, and Bioconcentration Factor with Examples

5.1.4 Receptor Doses with Examples

5.1.5 Toxicity Assessment

5.1.6 Risk Characterization

5.2 Assessing the Risks of Some Common Pollutants

5.3 Ecological Risk Assessment

5.4 Risk Management

5.5 Communicating Information on Environmental and Health Risks

5.5.1 From Concern to Outrage: Determinants of Public Response

5.5.2 Sustainable Strategies for Environmental and Health Risk Communication

5.5.3 Case Study: Environmental and Health Risk Communication; Neglected Until After an Accident

5.5.4 Lessons Learned

5.6 Environmental Information Access on the Internet

5.7 Health and Occupational Safety

5.8 Industrial Process Safety System Guidelines; OSHA

5.9 Noise: Introduction

5.9.1 Occupational Noise Exposure; Occupational Noise and Hearing Protection: Theory and Applications, and Noise Control; Examples

5.10 Radiation: Definition 5.10.1 Sources of Radiation; Radiation Dose; External and Internal Exposures; Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation with Examples

5.10.2 Radiation Protection Principles, Reduction of Radiation Hazard and Exposure Time, Theories and Examples

5.11 Effects of Global Warming: Greenhouse Gases and Its Effect; and Release of GWGs and Assessment

5.12 Problems

References

6 Industrial Process Pollution Prevention: Life-Cycle Assessment to Best Available Control Technology

6.1 Industrial Waste

6.2 What is Life Cycle Assessment?

6.2.1 Benefits of Conducting an LCA

6.2.2 Conducting an LCA; Goal definition and Scoping, Define the Goal of the Project; Determining the Type of information Needed to Inform the Decision-Makers; Determine How the Data Should be Organized and the Results Displayed; What Will and Will Not Be Included; Accuracy Required of the Data; Ground Rules for Performing the Work.

6.2.3 LCA Case Studies

6.3 Best Available Control Technologies (BACT) for Environmental Remediation with Examples

6.3.1 Life-Cycle-Based Environmental Law; Life-cycle Best Control Technology

6.4 Problems

References

7 Economics of Manufacturing Pollution Prevention: Toward an Environmentally Sustainable Industrial Economy

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Economics Evaluation of Pollution Prevention

7.1.2 Total Cost Assessment of Pollution Control and Prevention Strategies

7.1.3 Economics of Pollution Control Technology

7.2 Cost Estimates

7.2.1 Elements of Total Capital Investment

7.2.2 Elements of Total Annual Cost

7.2.3 Economic Criteria for Technology Comparisons; Examples

7.3 From Pollution Control to Profitable Pollution Prevention

7.3.1 Life Cycle Costing (LCC); Present Value; Payback Period; Internal Rate of Return;  Benefits Cost Ratio; Present Value of Net Benefits; Capital Expenditure;  Non-Recurring Operation & Maintenance (O&M); Recurring O&M; Energy Cost; Residual value

7.4 Resource Recovery and Reuse

7.4.1 Profitable Pollution Prevention in the Metal Finishing Industry

7.4.2 Moving Towards the Zero Discharge Goal; Planning and Implementation; Practicing Pollution Prevention; Mini-Case Studies

7.5 Value Added Chemical from Pulp Mill Waste Gases

7.5.1 Profitable Recovery and Control of Sulfur Emissions and Use as a Byproduct

7.5.2 Freshwater Use Reduction and Chemical Recovery and Reuse Save Million at Pulp Mill

7.5.3 Brine Concentration for Recycling Wastewater; Mini-Case Study: Saving the Colorado River

7.5.4 Economics of Brine Concentrator Systems; Mini-Case Study: Calculating Payback for a Zero Discharge System

7.6 Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

7.6.1 Life Cycle Cost; Key Points

7.7 The World’s First Zero Effluent Pulp Mill at Meadow Lake: The Closed-Loop Concept

7.8 Consequences of Dirty Air; Economic Consequences; Cost-Benefit Analysis

7.9 Total Annualized Cost for BACT

7.9.1 Calculation of Ton per Year and Dollar per Ton of Pollutant Removal

7.10 Cost Indices and Estimating Cost of Equipment using Marshall Swift and Chemical Engineering Indices; Examples

7.10.1 Waste-To-Energy in form of Electricity for Profits: CaseStudies

7.11 Problems

References

8 Lean Manufacturing – Zero Defect and Zero Effect: Environmetally Consious Manufacturing

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Statistical Analysis System

8.2.1 Sample Mean; Sample and Population Variance; Standard Deviation; DOT Diagram; Stem and Leaf Diagram; Histogram; Pareto Diagram, Boxplot; Time Series; Basic Principles; Several Examples

8.3 Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Process Capability

8.3.1 Process Improvement Using SPC; Eamples

8.4 Lean Manufacturing or Lean Production – Overview

8.4.1 History: Pre-20th Century; Benjamin Franklin; Frederick Winslow Taylor; Henry Ford; Sakichi Toyoda

8.4.2 Design for Manufacturing

8.5 Sustainable Design and Environmentally Conscious Design and manufacturing

8.5.1 Technologies for Sustainable Manufacturing

8.6 Lean Six Sigma: Introduction

8.6.1 The History of Six Sigma: 1980s-2000s

8.7 Cost versus Quality Analysis; Considerations; Examples

8.8 The Heart and Soul of the Toyota Way: Lean Processes

8.8.1 Fourteen Principles of the Toyota Way: Long-Term Philosophy

8.9 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

8.10 Problems

References

9 Industrial Waste Minimization Methodology: Industrial Ecology, Eco-Industrial Park, and Manufacturing via Process Intensification & Integration

9.1 Introduction

9.2. Industrial Ecology

9.2.1 What Is An Eco-Industrial Park (EIP)?

9.2.2 Eco-Industrial Park Development

9.2.3 Eco-Industrial Park – The Ebara Process: A Mini-Case Study 9-1; Advantages & Disadvantages

9.2.4 Mini-Case Study 9-2:

9.2.5 Mini-Case Study 9-3:

9.2.6 Mini-Case Study 9-4:

9.3 Water-Energy Nexus : Renewable and Non-Renewable Electricity Generating Plants

9.3.1 Circular Economy: Origins

9.3.2 Rethink the Business Model: Framework; Systems Thinking

9.3.3 Biomimicry; Cradle-to-Cradle; Towards the Circular Economy; Circular Business Models

9.10 Process Intensification and Integration Potential in Manufacturing

9.10.1 What is Process Intensification?

9.10.2 Mini-Case Study 9-5:

9.10.3 Mini-Case Study 9-6:

9.11 Manufacturing Process Integration

9.11.1 Process Integration Technique & Its Applications

9.11.2 Integrated Process Design; Process Synthesis; Pinch Analysis; Energy Integration

9.12 New Sustainable Chemicals and Energy from Black Liquor Gasification (BLG) Using Process Integration and Intensification: Introduction

9.12.1 Fischer-Tropsch Liquids; Mixed Alcohols

9.13 “Well-To-Wheels” Environmental Impact of BLG

9.13.1 Cost-Benefit Analysis; Conclusions

9.14 Open-Ended Questions

References

10 Quality Industrial Environmental Management: Sustainable Engineering in Manufacturing

10.1 Industry and the Global Environmental Issues: Introduction

10.1.1 Industry Role and Trends

10.1.2 Corporate Sustainability

10.1.3 Engineers Play Key Role in Manufacturing

10.2 Sustainable Engineering: Introduction

10.2.1 Sustainable Engineering Principles

10.2.2 Sustainable Engineering Design Principles

10.2.3 The Sandestin Sustainable Engineering Principles

10.2.4 The 12 Principles of Green Engineering

10.3 Design for Environmental Practices

10.3.1 Design for Environmental Processing and Manufacturing

10.3.2 Design for Reliability

10.3.3 Design for Sustainability

10.4 The Green Chemistry: Introduction

10.4.1 The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry

10.5 The Hanover Principles

10.6 Leadership in Energy and Environmental design (LEED): Introduction

10.6.1 LEED Certification Level

10.7 Sustainable Industries and Business: Introduction

10.7.1 Eco-efficiency

10.7.2 Sustainable Supply Chain Systems

10.7.3 Sustainable Green Economy: Six Essential Characteristics

10.8 Environmental Regulatory Law: Command and Control Market Based and Reflexive

10.8.1 Business Ethics

10.8.2 International Business Ethics Issues

10.8.3 Ethical Sustainability

10.8.4 Social Sustainability and Conclusions

10.9 Sustainable Business

10.9.1 Corporate Sustainability & Corporate Responsibility

10.9.2 Strategy for Corporate Sustainability

10.9.3 Transparency

10.9.4 Stakeholder Engagement

10.10 Open-Ended Questions

10.11 References

Acronyms

Appendices

Indices