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Industrial High Pressure Applications: Processes, Equipment, and Safety

Industrial High Pressure Applications: Processes, Equipment, and Safety

Rudolf Eggers (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-65265-5

Oct 2012

422 pages

Description

Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found
in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more.
The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize.

Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues.

With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable
reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.
PREFACE

PART ONE: Introduction

HISTORICAL RETROSPECT ON HIGH-PRESSURE PROCESSES

BASIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS
What are the Specifics of High-Pressure Processes?
Thermodynamic Aspects: Phase Equilibrium
Software and Data Collection
Phase Equilibrium: Experimental Methods and Measuring Devices
Interfacial Phenomena and Data
Material Properties and Transport Data for Heat and Mass Transfer
Evaporation and Condensation at High Pressures
Condensation

PART TWO: Processes

CATALYTIC AND NONCATALYTIC CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS
Thermodynamics as Driver for Selection of High Pressure
Ammonia Synthesis Process
Urea Process
General Aspects of HP Equipment

LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE HIGH-PRESSURE PROCESS
Introduction
Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics
Process
Products and Properties
Simulation Tools and Advanced Process Control

HIGH-PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF EMULSIONS
Motivation: Why High-Pressure Homogenization for Emulsification Processes?
Equipment: High-Pressure Homogenizers
Processes: Emulsification and Process Functions
Homogenization Processes Using SEM-Type Valves
Summary and Outlook

POWER PLANT PROCESSES: HIGH-PRESSURE-HIGH-TEMPERATURE PLANTS
Introduction
Coal-Fired Steam Power Plants
Steam Generator
High-Pressure Steam Turbines
Summary and Outlook

HIGH-PRESSURE APPLICATION IN ENHANCED CRUDE OIL RECOVERY
Introduction
Fundamentals
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Oil Reservoir Stimulation
Heavy Oil Recovery
Hydrates in Oil Recovery
Equipment

SUPERCRITICAL PROCESSES

Introduction
Processing of Solid Material
Processing of Liquids
Future Trends

IMPACT OF HIGH-PRESSURE ON ENZYMES
Introduction
Influence of Pressure on Biomatter
Influence of Pressure on the Kinetics of Enzyme Inactivation
Technological Aspects
Summary

HIGH PRESSURE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY PROCESSES
Introduction
Thermochemical Processes
Hydrothermal Processes

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Autofrettage: A High-Pressure Process to Improve Fatigue Lifetime
Waterjet Cutting Technology


PART THREE: Process Equipment and Safety

HIGH-PRESSURE COMPONENTS
Materials for High-Pressure Components
Pressure Vessels
Heat Exchangers
Valves
Piping

HIGH-PRESSURE PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS
Selection of Machinery
Influence of the Fluid on Selection and Design of the Machinery
Design Standards for High-Pressure Machines
Materials and Materials Testing
High-Pressure Centrifugal Pumps and High-Pressure Turbocompressors
Rotating Positive Displacement Machines
Reciprocating Positive Displacement Machines

HIGH-PRESSURE MEASURING DEVICES AND TEST EQUIPMENT
Introduction
Process Data Measuring -
Online
Lab Determination -
Additional Offline Test Equipment
Safety Aspects
Future

SIZING OF HIGH-PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES FOR GAS SERVICE
Standard Valve Sizing Procedure
Limits of the Standard Valve Sizing Procedure
Development of a Sizing Method for Real Gas Applications
Sizing of Safety Valves for Real Gas Flow
Summary

“With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.”  (ETDE Energy Database, 1 March 2013)