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Industrial Product Design of Solids and Liquids: A Practical Guide

Industrial Product Design of Solids and Liquids: A Practical Guide

Wilfried Rähse

ISBN: 978-3-527-66761-1

Apr 2014

488 pages

$124.99

Description

Offering invaluable insights from a chemist with over 35 years experience in the industry, this practical guide incorporates numerous practical examples and case studies to explain the concepts included here.

The author explains the processes involved in product design, how to set up experiments, and ultimately how to scale-up.

Among the host of topics covered is a discussion of recent advances in the fundamentals and innovative technologies leading to new and improved products.

Industrial Product Design of Solids and Liquids: A Practical Guide is essential reading for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics and personal care, food, fragrance, paints, plastics and agricultural industries.

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Preface XIII

1 Chemical Product Design – a New Approach in Product and Process Development 1

Summary 1

1.1 Definitions 1

1.2 Customer Involvement 3

1.3 Specifications 8

1.4 Tasks of Development Team 8

1.5 Steering of Projects 11

1.6 Learnings 13

References 13

2 Diversity of Product Design 15

Summary 15

2.1 General Remarks 15

2.2 Customizable Developments 16

2.3 Foodstuffs 18

2.4 Chemicals 20

2.5 Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals 22

2.6 Polymers and Plastics 24

2.7 Ceramic Industry 27

2.8 Packaging 27

2.9 Brand 28

2.10 Learnings 30

3 Generation and Assessment of Ideas for Novel Products 31

Summary 31

3.1 Innovation 31

3.2 Implementation of a Product Idea 32

3.3 Project Success (Some Personal Reflections on the People Involved) 32

3.4 Generation of Innovations 34

3.5 Evaluation of Product Ideas 37

3.6 Learnings 38

References 38

4 Compressed Development and Implementation of Innovations 39

Summary 39

4.1 Preliminary Remarks 39

4.2 Reasons for an Accelerated Product Development 40

4.3 Risks 41

4.4 Barriers in Development Projects 42

4.5 History 43

4.6 Compressed Project Processing 43

4.7 Project Leadership 45

4.8 Teamwork in Projects 47

4.9 Conditions for Success of Compressed Project Work 48

4.10 Design of Production Plant 49

4.11 Biotechnology 51

4.12 Maximum Speed-to-Market (Examples) 52

4.13 Relationship between Compressed Development and Product Design 54

4.14 Outlook 54

4.15 Learnings 55

References 55

5 Product Design of Particles 57

Summary 57

5.1 Dry Agglomeration Processes: Pelleting and Tableting 57

5.2 Wet Agglomeration Process: Granulation 64

5.2.1 Definition of Granulation 64

5.2.2 Tasks of Granulation 65

5.2.3 Theoretical Basics 67

5.2.4 Mechanisms of Granulation 69

5.2.5 Industrial Granulation 73

5.2.6 Scale-Up 77

5.2.7 Applications 79

5.2.8 Design of Particles by Granulation 81

5.3 Learnings 86

References 87

6 Product Design of Particles by Coatings 91

Summary 91

6.1 Processes for Setting the Product Design of Particles 91

6.2 Opportunities for Influencing Particle Design 92

6.3 Tasks of Coatings 95

6.4 Basic Variants of Coating 99

6.5 Coating Technologies 107

6.6 Learnings 117

References 118

7 Product Design Out of Disperse and Continuous Phases by Crushing 119

Summary 119

7.1 Breaking Up of Materials 119

7.2 Importance of Crushing Processes 121

7.3 Particle Properties by Breaking Up 122

7.4 Variants of Crushing 126

7.4.1 Grinding of Solids 128

7.4.2 Deagglomeration 131

7.4.3 Split Up Sensitive Materials in a Cold Milling Process 132

7.4.4 Milling of Suspended Solids 132

7.4.5 Breaking Down and Transforming of Liquids into Dispersed Solids 133

7.4.6 Splitting with Simultaneous Absorbing/Reaction 133

7.5 Processes for Crushing of Materials 133

7.5.1 Equipment for Grinding of Disperse Dry Raw Materials 134

7.5.2 Equipment for Grinding of Disperse Raw Materials in Liquid Phases 137

7.5.3 Breaking Up of Materials in Combination with Drying Methods 142

7.6 Energy Requirements 144

7.7 Determination of Product Design via Specifications 147

7.8 Design of Products by Breaking-Up Processes 148

7.8.1 Determination of Particle Properties for Solids 149

7.8.2 Solids from Melting 150

7.9 Product Design Out of Multistep Processes (Examples) 151

7.9.1 Powders from Molten Metals 151

7.9.2 Powdered Metals for Metallic Paints 153

7.9.3 Reinforcing Materials and Fillers for Polymers 154

7.10 Consequences 155

7.11 Learnings 156

References 156

8 Product Design Out of Continuous Phases by Spray Drying and Crystallization 159

Summary 159

8.1 Importance of Spray Drying 159

8.2 Basics of Atomization and Drying 161

8.2.1 Atomizing with Nozzles 161

8.2.2 Description of Drying and Structure Formation 161

8.2.3 Industrial Spray Drying 163

8.3 Spray Drying Plants and Plant Safety 164

8.4 Improved Capacity and Energy Consumption 169

8.5 Influencing the Product Design 176

8.5.1 Choice of Atomizer and of Operating Mode 179

8.5.2 Material Dependence of Particle Design 180

8.5.3 Agglomeration of Droplets and Particles 184

8.5.4 Recirculation of Coarse Particles and Dust 184

8.6 Scale-Up of Spray Dryers 187

8.7 Exhausted Air and Waste Water 189

8.8 Spray Agglomeration 190

8.9 Crystallization/Precipitation 192

8.10 Learnings 194

References 195

9 Manufacturing of Application-Related Designed Plastic Products 197

Summary 197

9.1 Polymers 197

9.2 Importance of Plastics 199

9.3 Task 201

9.4 Product Design for Plastics 202

9.4.1 Polymer Engineering 202

9.4.2 Polymer Design 205

9.4.3 Polymer Shaping 208

9.5 Polymers in Detergent Formulations 211

9.5.1 Cobuilder 211

9.5.2 Inhibitors (Graying, Color Transfer, Foam, and Dirt) 212

9.5.3 Excipients and Starches 213

9.6 Plastics in Detergent Industry 213

9.6.1 Packaging 213

9.6.2 Polyvinyl Alcohol as Packaging Material 218

9.7 Shape and Function 222

9.8 Learnings 223

References 224

10 Production of Tailor-Made Enzymes for Detergents 225

Summary 225

10.1 Product Design in Biotechnology 225

10.2 History 226

10.3 Enzymes 228

10.3.1 Enzymes as Part of White Biotechnology 228

10.3.2 Enzymes as Catalysts of Metabolism in Living Cells 230

10.3.3 Structure of Enzymes 231

10.4 Enzymes in Detergents 232

10.4.1 Significance 232

10.4.2 Optimizations of Production Strain 233

10.5 Industrial Manufacture of Proteases 235

10.5.1 Materials for the Plant 236

10.5.2 Three-Step Process 236

10.5.3 Fermentation 238

10.5.4 Downstream Processing of Fermentation Broths 239

10.5.5 Manufacturing of Enzyme Granules 242

10.6 Workplace Safety 248

10.7 Product Design of Enzymes 249

10.8 Learnings 250

References 251

11 Design of Solid Laundry Detergents According to Consumer Requirements 253

Summary 253

11.1 Market Products in Germany 253

11.2 Identification and Consideration of Customer Needs 255

11.3 History of Laundry Washing 258

11.4 Washing Process 259

11.5 Recipe 265

11.6 Design of Finished Products 267

11.7 Manufacturing Processes 270

11.7.1 Drying in Spray Towers for Customary Powders 271

11.7.2 Combined Spraying with Compacting Processes for Concentrates 273

11.7.3 Non-Tower Method 274

11.8 Novel Manufacturing Method for Granules 277

11.9 Economic Considerations 280

11.10 Outlook 281

11.11 Learnings 283

References 283

12 Product Design of Liquids 285

Summary 285

12.1 Introduction 285

12.2 Water-Based Liquids 286

12.3 Water-Insoluble Liquids (Example: Perfume Oils) 290

12.3.1 History of Perfume Oils 290

12.3.2 Perfumes 291

12.3.3 Extraction of Fragrances 294

12.3.4 Chemical Composition of Natural Fragrances 298

12.3.5 Possibilities in Product Design of Perfume Oils 299

12.3.6 Emulsions 302

12.3.7 Scented Solids 303

12.3.8 Neuromarketing 306

12.3.9 Perfume Oil for Space Fragrancing 306

12.3.10 Perfume Oils for Detergents 307

12.3.11 Manufacture of Fragrance Beads 311

12.3.12 Personal Care and Other Products 313

12.3.13 Safety 314

12.4 Learnings 316

References 316

13 Design of Skin Care Products 319

Summary 319

13.1 History of Cosmetics 319

13.2 Regulations of Cosmetic Products 320

13.3 Product Design 322

13.4 Skin Care 324

13.4.1 Cosmetic Products for Beautification 325

13.4.2 Active Cosmetics for Healthy Skin 326

13.4.3 Differences between Cosmeceuticals and Drugs 327

13.4.4 Natural Cosmetics Label 329

13.5 Emulsions 330

13.5.1 Basics (Definition, Structure, and Classification) 330

13.5.2 Stability of Emulsions 333

13.5.3 Preparation of Emulsions in the Laboratory 335

13.6 Structure of Skin Care Creams 336

13.6.1 Excipients 336

13.6.2 Preservations 338

13.6.3 Additives 340

13.6.4 Cosmetic Active Ingredients 341

13.6.5 Typical Effects of Cosmetics 341

13.7 Essential Active Substances from a Medical Point of View 341

13.7.1 Linoleic and Linolenic 344

13.7.2 Urea 344

13.7.3 Panthenol 344

13.8 Penetration into the Skin 345

13.8.1 Skin Structure 345

13.8.2 Applying the Emulsion 346

13.8.3 Proof of Performance 346

13.8.4 Penetration of Lipophilic Substances 348

13.9 Targeted Product Design in the Course of Development 351

13.10 Production of Skin Care Products 353

13.11 Bottles and Prices of Cosmetic Creams 362

13.12 Design of all Elements 365

13.13 Learnings 366

References 367

14 Influencing the Product Design by Chemical Reactions and the Manufacturing Process 371

Summary 371

14.1 General Remarks 371

14.2 Elements of the Manufacturing Process 372

14.3 Raw Materials and Synthesis Routes 373

14.4 Chemical Reactor and Reaction Sequence 375

14.5 Entire Procedure 380

14.6 Choice of Machines and Apparatuses 383

14.7 Operating Conditions 386

14.8 Drying Gas 387

14.9 Learnings 389

References 390

15 Design of Disperse Solids by Chemical Reactions 391

Summary 391

15.1 Importance of Solid-State Reactions 391

15.2 Theoretical Bases 392

15.3 Modeling of Isothermal Solid-State Reactions 393

15.4 Modeling of ‘‘Adiabatic’’ Solid Reactions 395

15.5 Reactions of Disperse Particles in the Industry 395

15.5.1 Conversions with Gases 395

15.5.2 Reactions of Particles with Liquids 399

15.5.3 Conversions in Liquids 402

15.5.4 Reactive Suspension Precipitations 403

15.6 Formation of Products 404

15.6.1 Product Formation in Fluid/Solid Reactions 404

15.6.2 Product Formation through Reactions in Suspension 406

15.6.3 Influencing the Product Design 407

15.7 Etherification of Cellulose 409

15.8 Dry Neutralization 414

15.8.1 Raw Materials 414

15.8.2 Chemical Formulas 414

15.8.3 Modeling of the Reaction Processes 415

15.8.4 Reaction Sequence 415

15.9 Building Materials 418

15.10 Hints for Practice 419

15.11 Learnings 420

References 420

16 Materials for the Machinery 423

Summary 423

16.1 Motivation 423

16.2 Relationship between Material and Product Design 424

16.3 Choice of Material 425

16.4 Stainless Steel 426

16.4.1 Standard Grade 427

16.4.2 Corrosion 428

16.4.3 Smoothing the Metal Surfaces 430

16.4.3.1 Preparations 430

16.4.3.2 Mechanical Procedures 431

16.4.3.3 Pickling 432

16.4.3.4 Electropolishing 433

16.4.3.5 Plasma Polishing 436

16.5 Nonferrous (NF) Metals and Alloys 437

16.6 Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials 440

16.6.1 Borosilicate Glass 440

16.6.2 Vitreous Enamel 441

16.6.3 Graphite 442

16.7 Plastics 443

16.8 Learnings 447

References 448

17 Principles of Product Design 449

Summary 449

17.1 Characteristic Features 449

17.2 Targeted Production of Particles and Fluids from Different Raw Materials 450

17.3 Learnings 453

List of Companies 455

Index 461