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Industrial Water Resource Management: Challenges and Opportunities for Corporate Water Stewardship

Industrial Water Resource Management: Challenges and Opportunities for Corporate Water Stewardship

Pradip K. Sengupta

ISBN: 978-1-119-27246-5

Sep 2017

488 pages

$100.99

Description

Provides the tools that allow companies to understand the fundamental concepts of water resource management and to take proper action towards sustainable development 

Businesses, communities, and ecosystems everywhere depend on clean freshwater to survive and prosper. When the same source of water is shared for economic, social, and environmental causes it becomes the responsibility of every sector to develop a sustainable water strategy beneficial for all. This book offers a water resource management plan for industries that is directly implementable and consistent with the Water Framework Directives of different countries with a special emphasis on developing countries—a plan that is economically efficient, socially equitable, and environmentally sustainable.

Industrial Water Resource Management, Challenges and Opportunities for Efficient Water Stewardship offers explicit technical and investment solutions, socioeconomic and legal instruments, and recommendations for institutional restructuring. Written by a leading world expert in the field, it covers a wide range of topics including:

●      Source water assessment and protection

●      Water audit, industrial water footprint assessment—an evaluation of tools and methodologies

●      Corporate water disclosure methods and tools

●      Water stewardship by the industries

●      Stakeholder collaboration and engagement

●      New technologies enabling companies to better manage water resources

Given the well-known challenge of managing natural resources in a way that maximizes and sustains social welfare, this book provides an invaluable point of reference for applied researchers and policy makers working in water resources management.

Series Editor Foreword – Challenges in Water Management xvi

Foreword xviii

Preface xx

Acknowledgements xxv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 The context 1

1.1.1 The story of Coca]Cola in India 2

1.2 Water goals in the 21st Century 4

1.3 Water ethics 7

1.4 Value of water 10

1.4.1 Water valuation 11

1.4.2 Application of water valuation 12

1.5 Water and energy nexus 13

1.5.1 Impact of energy production on water resources 16

1.6 Global water stress 17

1.7 Industrial impact on water resource 20

1.7.1 Impact on the quantity of the source water 20

1.7.2 Hydro]morphological impact 20

1.7.3 Quality impact 20

1.7.4 Impact on the access to water by the stakeholders 21

1.7.5 Affordability of water 21

1.8 Water sustainability 21

1.9 Impact of climate change 24

1.10 Dimensions in industrial water management 25

1.10.1 Global perspective 27

1.10.2 Water accounting 27

1.10.3 Water stewardship 28

1.10.4 Adaptive management 28

1.11 Green growth and green business 28

1.11.1 The challenges of green growth 29

1.11.2 Natural capital concept 30

1.11.3 Green growth policy fundamentals 30

1.11.4 Indicators of green growth 31

1.12 Conclusion 31

Note 32

Bibliography 32

2 Water Scenarios and Business Models of The Twenty]first Century 37

2.1 Water scenario 37

2.1.1 Countrywise water scenario 39

2.2 Water indicators 45

2.2.1 Baseline water stress 45

2.2.2 Inter]annual variability 46

2.2.3 Water conflict 46

2.2.4 River basins and aquifers under threat and conflict 47

2.2.5 Physical water risk in business 49

2.2.6 Disruption in the supply chain 49

2.2.7 Failure to meet basic water needs 49

2.3 Global water trends 50

2.4 Business models 50

2.4.1 Business as usual model 51

2.4.2 Alternative model 51

2.5 Integrated water resource management 52

2.5.1 History of IWRM 53

2.5.2 Principles of IWRM 53

2.6 Sustainable development goal for business sector 56

2.7 Conclusion 56

Bibliography 58

3 Understanding Water 61

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Hydrological cycle 63

3.2.1 Water cycle and ecosystems 67

3.3 Water on land 67

3.3.1 Soil water 68

3.4 Stores of water 70

3.5 Surface runoff 72

3.5.1 Meteorological factors affecting runoff 72

3.5.2 Physical factors affecting runoff 72

3.5.3 Human activities can affect runoff 73

3.6 River and river basin 74

3.6.1 Stream order 76

3.6.2 Drainage basin, catchment and watershed boundaries 76

3.6.3 Classification of river basin and hydrological unit 76

3.7 Industrial impact on river flow 78

3.7.1 Temporal and spatial control over river flow 79

3.7.2 Water direct withdrawal 79

3.7.3 Physical disturbance of riverbeds 79

3.7.4 Pollution 79

3.7.5 Water clogging 80

3.8 Surface water management 81

3.8.1 Key component of a SWMP 82

3.9 Groundwater 83

3.9.1 Groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology) 84

3.9.2 Fundamentals concepts 85

3.9.3 Aquifer and confining beds 85

3.9.4 Groundwater system 95

3.9.5 Essential studies in groundwater 96

3.9.6 Relation between groundwater withdrawal and stream flow 98

3.9.7 Groundwater withdrawal in the recharging zone 100

3.9.8 Hydrogeological investigation 100

3.9.5 Groundwater management 103

3.10 Conclusion 103

Notes 106

Bibliography 106

4 Corporate Water Stewardship 109

4.1 Introduction 109

4.2 Why water stewardship? 110

4.2.1 Partnership development 111

4.2.2 Improve efficiency 111

4.2.3 Public acceptance 112

4.2.4 Incentives 112

4.2.5 Balancing risk and economic performance 113

4.2.6 Reinforces communication 113

4.3 Aspects of water stewardship 116

4.3.1 Legal aspect 116

4.3.2 Environmental aspect 117

4.3.3 Social aspect 117

4.3.4 Technological aspect 117

4.3.5 Economic aspect 119

4.4 Challenges in water stewardship 119

4.4.1 Legal challenges 119

4.4.2 Challenges in the value chain 120

4.4.3 Watershed Challenges 121

4.4.4 Social challenges 122

4.4.5 Market challenges 124

4.5 Developing a corporate strategy in water stewardship 125

4.5.1 Understand and recognise sustainability 126

4.5.2 Develop an engagement framework 126

4.5.3 Identification of stakeholders 126

4.5.4 Engagement risks 127

4.5.5 Collective action framework 127

4.6 Goals and commitments 129

4.7 Establish systems and processes 132

4.8 Opportunities in water stewardship 132

4.8.1 Management improvement 132

4.8.2 Knowledge asset development 133

4.8.3 Investment 133

4.8.4 Developing information and database 133

4.8.5 Human resource development 136

4.9 Water Literacy 138

4.9.1 Definition and concept 138

4.9.2 Water literacy framework 139

4.10 Action programmes under WSI 140

4.10.1 Conduct a water resource assessment 140

4.10.2 Conduct a water footprint analysis 140

4.10.3 Conduct a sustainability analysis 140

4.10.4 Water accounting and disclosure 141

4.10.5 Implement mitigation measures 142

4.11 Outcome of water stewardship initiatives (WSI) 142

4.12 Water stewardship standards 142

4.13 Global organisations for facilitating water stewardship 143

4.14 Water stewardship tools 150

4.15 Case studies 150

4.15.1 Unilever 150

4.15.2 BASF 151

4.15.3 TOM’s of Maine 151

4.15.4 Mars Inc. 151

4.15.5 Nestlé 152

4.15.6 Coca]Cola 152

4.16 Conclusion 153

Bibliography 153

5 Water Governance Framework and Water Acts 158

5.1 Introduction 158

5.2 What is water governance? 159

5.3 Water laws 161

5.4 Tasks of water governance 161

5.5 Challenges in water governance 162

5.6 Legal framework 163

5.7 Institutional framework 164

5.7.1 Ministries 166

5.7.2 Government departments 166

5.7.3 Authorities 167

5.7.4 Institutions 167

5.8 Principles of water governance 167

5.9 Spatial scale of water governance 168

5.10 Hierarchical governance 169

5.11 Cross]cutting authority of governance 170

5.12 Stakeholders engagement in water governance 170

5.13 Functions and functionaries of the water governance 171

5.14 Role of civil society organisations (CSO) 172

5.15 Water governance framework of different countries (case studies) 174

5.15.1 European union water framework directives 174

5.15.2 Water governance in Australia 176

5.15.3 Water governance in Brazil 178

5.15.4 Water governance in Canada 179

5.15.5 Water governance in China 181

5.15.6 Water governance in India 183

5.15.7 Water governance in Indonesia 185

5.15.8 Water governance in Namibia 185

5.15.9 Water governance in South Africa 188

5.16 Conclusion 190

Notes 190

Bibliography 191

6 Water Quality Standards and Water Pollution 195

6.1 Water quality]standards 195

6.1.1 Introduction 195

6.1.2 Quality parameters for drinking water 196

6.1.3 Microbiological contaminants 197

6.1.4 Physical parameters 197

6.1.5 Organic chemical pollutants 197

6.1.6 Parameters indicative of environmental pollution 197

6.1.7 Guidelines for standard quality parameters 202

6.1.8 Water quality requirements of industries 202

6.1.9 Water quality of effluent 205

6.2 Industrial water pollution 210

6.2.1 Definition 210

6.2.2 Direct reasons of water pollution 216

6.2.3 Indirect reasons of pollution 216

6.2.4 Indicators of industrial water pollution 217

6.2.5 Socio economic indicator of water pollution 217

6.2.6 Biological indicators of water pollution 218

6.2.7 Industrial sources of pollution 219

6.2.8 Water pollution from industrial emission 219

6.2.9 Water pollution from industrial effluent 221

6.2.10 Water pollution from solid]waste disposal 222

6.2.11 Impacts of mining on water quality 222

6.2.12 Water pollution potentiality in petrochemical and power industry 222

6.2.13 Groundwater pollution from industrial effluents and leachates 223

6.2.14 Water pollution identifiers 227

6.2.15 Management and control of water pollution 228

6.2.16 Wastewater management 232

6.2.17 Disposal of wastewater 233

6.2.18 Effluent treatment 235

6.2.19 Treatment methods 235

6.2.20 Solid]waste management 238

6.2.21 Management of leachate 241

6.3 Conclusion 241

Notes 241

Bibliography 241

7 Water Abstraction, Purification and Distribution 246

7.1 Overview 246

7.2 Water sourcing by industries 247

7.3 Surface water abstraction 248

7.3.1 Reservoir intake 249

7.3.2 River and lake intakes 251

7.3.3 Impacts of surface water abstraction 252

7.4 Methods of groundwater abstraction 253

7.4.1 Abstraction of baseflow 253

7.4.2 Abstraction of groundwater from aquifer 254

7.4.3 Construction of a tube well 255

7.4.4 Impacts of groundwater abstraction 262

7.5 Water abstraction from the sea 264

7.5.1 Environmental impact of seawater withdrawal 264

7.6 Conveyance system 264

7.6.1 Conveying water from the source to the treatment plant 265

7.7 Water purification 265

7.7.1 Primary screening 267

7.7.2 Clarification 267

7.7.3 Disinfection 269

7.7.4 Desalination 269

7.7.5 Membrane technologies 270

7.8 Water supply and distribution 274

7.8.1 Pipes 275

7.8.2 Storage system 275

7.9 Water delivery and distribution software 277

7.9.1 Overview 278

7.9.2 Capabilities 278

7.9.3 Applications 279

7.10 Conclusion 280

Bibliography 280

8 Water Resource Assessment 282

8.1 Introduction 282

8.2 Water resource assessment tools 284

8.3 General scenario 286

8.4 WRA basics 286

8.4.1 Conceptual and policy framework 286

8.4.2 Defining a research agenda 288

8.4.3 Defining the physical boundary 288

8.5 WRA data generation 289

8.5.1 Secondary data collection 289

8.5.2 Primary data generation 290

8.5.3 Biophysical data 290

8.5.4 Hydrometeorological data 294

8.5.5 Data table 295

8.5.6 Hydrogeological data 295

8.5.7 Socioeconomic data 297

8.5.8 Water use and discharge 298

8.6 Water balance 298

8.7 Estimation of surface runoff 299

8.7.1 Khosla’s Formula 301

8.7.2 Estimation of rainfall runoff by SCS curve number (CN) method 301

8.7.3 Runoff calculation 304

8.8 Estimation of stream discharge 308

8.8.1 Volumetric gauging 308

8.8.2 Float gauging 308

8.8.3 Current metering 308

8.9 Estimation of renewable groundwater resource 309

8.9.1 Water level fluctuation method 309

8.9.2 Rainfall infiltration method 311

8.9.3 Soil water balance method 311

8.10 Estimation of pond/reservoir storage volume 312

8.10.1 Area calculation irregularly shaped ponds 312

8.10.2 Pond depth and volume estimation 313

8.11 Estimation of source]water quality 313

8.11.1 Water sampling 314

8.11.2 Water analysis 316

8.12 Aquifer test 316

8.12.1 Field procedures 317

8.12.2 Test procedures 317

8.12.3 Pumping test data reduction and presentation 320

8.12.4 Analysis of test results 320

8.12.5 Calculations and aquifer test results 321

8.13 Build understanding of key catchment processes and interaction 321

8.14 Long]term simulation of catchment behaviour 321

8.15 Assessment of sustainable and exploitable water over assessment period 321

8.16 Presentation of water resource assessment 322

8.17 Conclusion 322

Note 323

Bibliography 323

9 Corporate Water Accounting and Disclosure 325

9.1 The context 325

9.1.1 Water Risk 325

9.1.2 Water stress 327

9.1.3 Water intensity 328

9.2 Methods of assessing water risk 328

9.2.1 Water risk assessment tools 328

9.2.2 Data generation and internal assessment 332

9.3 Water profiling 332

9.3.1 Water profile of the basin 332

9.3.2 Benefit of a watershed profile 333

9.3.3 Water profile of a company 334

9.3.4 Water balance calculation 335

9.3.5 Impact assessment 337

9.4 Water footprint 338

9.4.1 The relevance of WFA to industry 341

9.4.2 Virtual water chain 342

9.4.3 Assessment of green water footprint 342

9.4.4 Assessment of blue water footprint 343

9.4.5 Assessment of grey water footprint (GWF) 344

9.4.6 Assessment of business water footprint (BWF) 345

9.4.7 Life cycle–based assessment 351

9.4.8 Application of water footprint assessment 352

9.4.9 Benefits of WFA 352

9.4.10 Water footprint assessment as a framework for corporate water sustainability 353

9.4.11 International standards of water footprint assessment 355

9.4.12 Case studies 355

9.5 Industrial response to WF assessment 356

9.6 Water disclosure document 356

9.7 Benefits of water disclosure 357

9.8 Conclusion 357

Notes 358

Bibliography 358

10 Detection of Water Loss and Methods of Water Conservation in Industries 361

10.1 Overview 361

10.2 Getting started: Develop a water conservation strategy 362

10.3 Detection of overuse 363

10.3.1 Benchmarking 363

10.4 Water audit 364

10.4.1 Fundamentals of water audit 364

10.4.2 Benefits of water audit 365

10.4.3 Scopes and objectives of water audit 366

10.4.4 Human resource requirements for water audit 366

10.4.5 Corporate process in water audit 367

10.4.6 Water audit processes 368

10.4.7 Water audit software 376

10.4.8 Industrial response to water audit report 380

10.4.9 Real loss management 382

10.5 Methods of water conservation 382

10.5.1 Water use management 382

10.5.2 Demand management 383

10.5.3 Changing the water use behaviour 384

10.5.4 Water use assessment 384

10.5.5 Reduced consumption and water loss 384

10.5.6 Reuse and recycle 385

10.5.7 Zero liquid discharge plants 385

10.6 Water saving in agriculture industries 386

10.6.1 Soil moisture sensors 386

10.6.2 Rain sensors 386

10.6.3 Drip/micro–irrigation 387

10.6.4 Sprinkler heads 387

10.6.5 Centre pivot irrigation 387

10.7 Rainwater harvesting 388

10.7.1 Introduction 388

10.7.2 Regulations and guidelines 389

10.7.3 Why industries should take up RWH 390

10.7.4 Components of RWH 391

10.7.5 Rainwater harvesting potential 396

10.7.6 Artificial recharge of groundwater 398

10.7.7 Surface runoff harvesting 401

10.7.8 Issues in RWH 403

10.7.9 Maintenance of RWH system 403

10.7.10 Constraints in adopting a rainwater harvesting system 403

10.7.11 Promotion and further development of rainwater utilisation 404

10.7.12 Example of an industrial RWH 405

10.8 Conclusion 406

Bibliography 407

11 Corporate Social Responsibility: Way Ahead in Water and Human Rights 409

11.1 Introduction 409

11.2 Public policy on CSR 410

11.3 CSR policy of corporations 412

11.4 Addressing water in CSR 413

11.4.1 Water security 413

11.4.2 Drinking water and sanitation 413

11.4.3 Ecological development 414

11.5 CSR management framework 414

11.5.1 Policy 415

11.5.2 Procedure 415

11.5.3 Institutional arrangement 416

11.5.4 Partnership and stakeholders’ engagement 416

11.5.5 Reporting 417

11.6 CSR initiatives in the water sector 417

11.7 International standards and guidelines 418

11.8 Case studies 420

11.8.1 Coca]Cola 420

11.8.2 Nike 420

11.8.3 Swiss Re Group 420

11.8.4 Molson Coors 420

11.8.5 Levi Strauss & Co 421

11.9 Future of CSR 421

11.10 Conclusion 422

Note 422

Bibliography 423

Glossary 425

Annexure 444

Index 446