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Inorganic Chemistry: From Periodic Classification to Crystals

Inorganic Chemistry: From Periodic Classification to Crystals

Robert Valls

ISBN: 978-1-119-46892-9

Nov 2017, Wiley-ISTE

274 pages

$112.99

Description

Using classification, diagrams and crystallography elements, we describe in this book the bonds in the crystals using the basic patterns. The use of various criteria such as ionicity character of the bonds, the use of hard sphere models, the Pauling rules and the spatial availability of ions all together make it possible to better understand the spatial organization of typical crystals. Through original representations, the structure and the nature of the bonds in binary crystals of MX- and MX2- types as well as the ternary crystals of the perovskite and spinel type are studied.

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Acknowledgments ix

Introduction  xi

Chapter 1. Knowledge of the Periodic Table  1

1.1. Presentation of the periodic table  1

1.2. Construction of the periodic table  2

1.2.1. History  2

1.2.2. Structuring of the periodic table  10

1.2.3. Analysis of various classifications  14

1.2.4. Abundance of elements  19

1.3. Reading the classification  24

1.3.1. Atomic radius  25

1.3.2. Electronegativity  28

1.3.3. Ionization potential  31

1.3.4. Electron binding energy  34

1.4. Understanding ions through the classification  37

1.4.1. The nature and valence of ions through the classification 37

1.4.2. Radius of ions through the classification  41

1.4.3. Polarizability  44

1.4.4. The radii of ions in solids 46

Chapter 2. Knowledge of Metallic Crystals  53

2.1. Properties of metals  53

2.1.1. Characteristics of the metallic bond  54

2.1.2. Conductivity and the melting temperature of elements  56

2.2. Study of packing in metals  59

2.2.1. Formation of planar packing  60

2.2.2. Crystal formation  62

2.2.3. Counting atoms in a unit cell  68

2.2.4. Packing density  71

2.2.5. Designation of planes in a crystal  73

2.2.6. Surface density  76

2.3. Representation of metallic crystals  81

2.3.1. Definition of the unit cell 81

2.3.2. Geometry of simple polyhedrons  96

2.3.3. The sites  100

2.4. Packings and diagrams  103

2.4.1. Reading the diagrams  105

2.4.2. Solid solutions  109

2.4.3. Intermetallic compounds 112

2.4.4. Simple phase diagrams  113

Chapter 3. Knowledge of Ionic Crystals  125

3.1. Description of ionic to covalent crystals  125

3.2. Pauling’s rules 129

3.2.1. The ionic character of a bond according to Pauling  130

3.2.2. Pauling’s first rule: coordinated polyhedra  133

3.2.3. Pauling’s second rule: electrostatic valence principle  141

3.2.4. Pauling’s third rule: connections of polyhedra  144

3.2.5. Pauling’s fourth rule: separation of cations  146

3.2.6. Pauling’s fifth rule: homogeneity of the environment  147

3.2.7. Presentation of criteria employed  147

3.3. Geometry of binary crystals of MXn type  149

3.3.1. Presentation of the mentioned compounds  149

3.3.2. Study of cesium chloride 151

3.3.3. Study of sodium chloride 159

3.3.4. Study of zinc sulfide (sphalerite)  171

3.3.5. Study of zinc sulfide (wurtzite)  178

3.3.6. Study of nickel arsenide  185

3.4. Geometry of binary crystals of MX2 type  191

3.4.1. Study of calcium fluoride 191

3.4.2. Study of lithium oxide  196

3.4.3. Study of rutile  199

3.4.4. Study of cadmium iodide 206

3.4.5. Study of cadmium chloride  212

3.5. Review of characteristics of binary structures  215

3.5.1. Crystalline characteristics 215

3.5.2. Characteristics of availability  216

3.5.3. Characteristics of the unit cells  217

3.5.4. Characteristics of the families of compounds  219

3.6. Geometry of ternary crystals of ABnOm type  221

3.6.1. Study of SrTiO3 perovskite  221

3.6.2. Study of MgAl2O4 spinel 227

Appendix  237

Bibliography  239

Index  255