# Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGIS: A Workbook Approach to Learning GIS, 3rd Edition

# Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGIS: A Workbook Approach to Learning GIS, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-33034-0 March 2013 672 Pages

## Description

**An integrated approach that combines essential GIS background with a practical workbook on applying the principles in ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1**

*Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGIS*integrates a broad introduction to GIS with a software-specific workbook for Esri's ArcGIS. Where most courses make do using two separate texts, one covering GIS and another the software, this book enables students and instructors to use a single text with an integrated approach covering both in one volume with a common vocabulary and instructional style.

This revised edition focuses on the latest software updates—ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1. In addition to its already successful coverage, the book allows students to experience publishing maps on the Internet through new exercises, and introduces the idea of programming in the language Esri has chosen for applications (i.e., Python). A DVD is packaged with the book, as in prior editions, containing data for working out all of the exercises.

This complete, user-friendly coursebook:

- Is updated for the latest ArcGIS releases—ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1
- Introduces the central concepts of GIS and topics needed to understand spatial information analysis
- Provides a considerable ability to operate important tools in ArcGIS
- Demonstrates new capabilities of ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1
- Provides a basis for the advanced study of GIS and the study of the newly emerging field of GIScience

*Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGIS**, Third Edition* is the ideal guide for undergraduate students taking courses such as Introduction to GIS, Fundamentals of GIS, and Introduction to ArcGIS Desktop. It is also an important guide for professionals looking to update their skills for ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1.

## Related Resources

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## Table of contents

Foreword xxvii

Preface to Third Edition xxix

Preface to First Edition xxxv

Introduction xliii

**PART I Basic Concepts of GIS 1**

**CHAPTER 1 Some Concepts That Underpin GIS 3**

You Ask: “What Is GIS About?” 3

And So You Ask Again: “What Is GIS About?” 4

EXERCISE 1-1 (PROJECT)

Finding a Geographic Site by Manual Means 5

More of What GIS Is About 10

Next Steps: Seemingly Independent Things You Need To Know 11

Determining Where Something Is: Coordinate Systems 12

Determining Where Something Is: Latitude and Longitude 14

Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, Geographic Projections, and Scale 15

Projected Coordinate Systems 15

Geographic vs. Projected Coordinates: A Comparison 17

Two Projected Coordinate Systems: UTM and State Plane 17

Physical Dimensionality 20

Global Positioning Systems 22

Remote Sensing 22

Relational Databases 23

Searching (and Indexing) in General 29

Another Definition of GIS 30

Computer Software: In General 32

STEP-BY-STEP 35

EXERCISE 1-2 (PROJECT)

Developing a Fast Facts File for the Information You Learn 35

Understanding the File Structure for the Exercises 36

EXERCISE 1-3 (MINOR PROJECT)

Getting Set Up with ArcGIS 37

EXERCISE 1-4 (PROJECT)

Looking at the ArcCatalog Program 38

Anatomy of the ArcCatalog Window 39

Setting Some Options 40

The Catalog Tree 42

Connecting to a Folder 44

The Toolbars and the Status Bar 45

An Optional Step 49

Exploring Basic GIS Data Storage Models 50

EXERCISE 1-5 (MAJOR PROJECT)

Exploring Data with ArcCatalog—Fire Hydrants in a Village 51

Copying Data over to Your Personal Folder 51

Examining the Table 54

Deriving Information from the Table 55

Sorting the Records 55

Finding Values in a Table 56

Identifying Geographic Features and Coordinates 57

Looking at GeoGraphics 58

A First Look at Metadata 59

Using ArcCatalog to Place Data in ArcMap 61

EXERCISE 1-6 (PROJECT)

A Look at Some Spatial Data for Finding a Site for the Wildcat Boat Facility 63

Using the Area on the Disk for Your Own Work 64

Copying Data over to Your Personal IGIS Folder 64

Searching for GIS Data 65

Exploring Soils 70

But Something Is Missing 71

Is the Newly Found Data Applicable? 73

Making a Personal Geodatabase Feature Class from a Coverage 74

Looking at the Landcover Personal Geodatabase Feature Class 75

Further Examining the Wildcat Boat Facility Area Data Sets 76

EXERCISE 1-7 (PROJECT)

Looking at Wildcat Boat Data with ArcMap 79

Seeing the Results of the Join 82

EXERCISE 1-8 (PROJECT)

Understanding the ArcGIS Help System 82

A Button for Instant Help: What’s This? (for ArcGIS Desktop version 10.0 only) 82

Getting Instant Help for a Tool or Command (for ArcGIS Desktop version 10.1) 83

The Help System and Documentation 83

ArcGIS Help across the Internet 84

EXERCISE 1-9 (DULL STUFF)

Using ArcCatalog for Mundane Operations 85

EXERCISE 1-10 (REVIEW)

Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 86

What’s Next? 88

**CHAPTER 2 Characteristics and Examples of Spatial Data 89**

The Original Form of Spatial Data: Maps 89

Moving Spatial Data from Maps to Computers: Forces for Change 90

Spatial Data 94

Limiting the Scope 95

Spatial Data for Decision Making 95

Sets of Spatial Data: The Database 95

Spatial Databases: Inherent Diffi culties 96

Information Systems 101

Uses for a Geographic Information System 103

STEP-BY-STEP 113

EXERCISE 2-1 (MOSTLY OUTSIDE)

Appreciating Geographic Space and Spatial Data 113

EXERCISE 2-2 (SETUP)

ArcMap Toolbar Examination and Review 114

EXERCISE 2-3 (MAJOR PROJECT)

Exploring Different Types of Geographic Data 117

The Basic Difference between ArcCatalog and ArcMap 117

Exploring Data from the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) 117

Preliminaries 118

Seeing the GPS File in ArcMap 118

Looking at the GPS Track in the Context of a Variety of GIS Data 122

A Potpourri of Types of Geographic Data 122

Displaying Layers from Vector-Based Datasets 125

Housekeeping: Saving and Restoring a Map 127

Selecting: Both Map Data and Attribute Data 128

Using the Measure Tool and the Identify Tool 131

County Boundaries and Polygons 131

TIGER/Line Files 133

The Table of Contents: Display vs. Source vs. Selection 134

EXERCISE 2-4 (MAJOR PROJECT)

A Look at Raster Data 136

Digital Raster Graphics and Cell-Based Files 136

A Look (Optional) at How DRG Color Values Are Put Together 140

Experimenting with Different Ways of Seeing Data 141

Digital Orthophotos 143

More TIGER/Line Files 145

Another Tie between Attributes and Geographics 148

More Housekeeping: Shutting Down and Restarting ArcMap 149

Digital Elevation Model Files 149

Comparing the DEM and the DRG 153

Contour Line Files 153

EXERCISE 2-5 (PROJECT)

Triangulated Irregular Networks 155

TINs are Three-Dimensional Datasets 158

Elevation Based on Massive Sets of Data: The Esri Terrain 160

EXERCISE 2-6 (PROJECT)

Geodatasets of Soils, Rocks, and Land Cover 161

The Summarizing Procedure 162

Some Geological Data 164

Rasters of Land Cover Data 165

You Are Not Alone (Assuming you have an Internet connection) 167

Next Steps on Your Own 168

EXERCISE 2-7 (REVIEW)

Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 168

The Next Chapter 171

**CHAPTER 3 Products of a GIS: Maps and Other Information 173**

GIS and Cartography—Compatibility? 173

Products of a Geographic Information System 174

Overall Requirements for Utility 174

Classification of GIS Products 175

Documenting Products 177

Thoughts on Different Types of Products 178

Don’t Ignore Character-Based Information 178

Don’t Hesitate to Sort Information 178

Consider Hard Copy 179

Consider Balance in Product Content 179

Elements of Product Design 179

Units, Projection, and Scale 180

Thoughts on Resolution and Scale 180

Making Sure There Is a Base Map 180

Measure of Quality Assurance 181

The Decision Maker–Product Interface 181

In Summary 182

STEP-BY-STEP 183

The Data View and the Layout View 183

EXERCISE 3-1 (WARM-UP)

Templates 184

EXERCISE 3-2 (PROJECT)

Templates That Contain Data 186

Controlling Your View of the Map: Zooming 188

Understanding the Panning and Other Controls 189

Adding Other Map Elements 190

EXERCISE 3-3 (MAJOR PROJECT)

Data Frames 192

Adding Data to Data Frames 193

A Summary of the Graphic Indicators 195

Tinkering with the Map—Scale Bars 195

Legends 196

EXERCISE 3-4 (MINI PROJECT)

Looking at the Plethora of Mapmaking Tools and Options 198

EXERCISE 3-5 (MAJOR PROJECT)

Making a Map of the Wildcat Boat Datasets 201

EXERCISE 3-6 (MAJOR PROJECT)

Publishing Maps on the Internet 201

EXERCISE 3-7 (MAJOR PROJECT)

Enhancing Communication: Styles, Layer Files, Layer Packages, Reports, Charts, and Graphics 206

Layer Files 206

Layer Packages 209

Styles 210

Adding and Using a Style 211

Reports 212

Charts and Graphs 216

Graphics 218

Making Graphics out of Geographic Features 223

EXERCISE 3-8

Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 224

**CHAPTER 4 Structures for Storing Geographic Data 227**

Why Is Spatial Data Analysis So Hard? 227

How the Computer Aids Analyzing Spatial Data 228

Complexity of Spatial Data 228

Structures for Spatial Data 229

Storage Paradigms for Areal Data 230

Fundamental Bases of Geographic Data Models 230

The Raster Data Model 232

Vector Data Model 234

A Multiplicity of “Storadigms” 235

Vector-Based Geographic Datasets—Logical Construction 235

Zero-Dimensional Entities in a Two-Dimensional Field: Points 236

One-Dimensional Entities in a Two-Dimensional Field: Lines 237

Two-Dimensional Entities in a Two-Dimensional Field: Polygons 238

Three-Dimensional Entities in a Three-Dimensional Field: Triangles and Multipatches 239

Specific Esri Spatial Vector Data Storage Mechanisms 240

The Geodatabase Data Structure 240

Geodatabase Software 240

Polygons within Polygons—Perimeter and Area Calculations 241

Geodatabases—Layout in the Computer 243

Geodatabases—Logical Construction 243

Geodatabases—Feature Shape 244

Nested Polygons in Geodatabases 245

Geodatabases and Attributes 245

Objects—First Acquaintance 247

The Shapefile Data Structure 247

Shapefiles—Layout in the Computer 248

Summarizing Vector Dataset Features 249

Summary of Logical Structures of Vector-Based GIS Datasets 249

Raster-Based Geographic Data Sets—Logical Construction 250

Raster-Based Geographic Data Sets—Layout in the Computer 251

TINs 253

TIN-Based Geographic Data Sets—Layout in the Computer 254

Spatial Reference 255

STEP-BY-STEP 257

EXERCISE 4-1 (WARM-UP)

Meet ArcToolbox 257

EXERCISE 4-2 (WARM-UP)

A Look at Some Trivial Personal Geodatabase Feature Classes 259

More Help 260

EXERCISE 4-3 (MINOR PROJECT)

Adding Tools and Toolboxes to your Toolset 262

EXERCISE 4-4 (MINOR PROJECT)

Making a Personal Geodatabase Feature Class Named TextToFeature 263

Specifi cation of your Input Text File for the “Create Features from Text File” Tool 263

Labeling Features 266

Making Polygons from Lines 268

Areas and Perimeters Examined 269

Labeling Features with Selected Attributes 269

EXERCISE 4-5 (QUICK QUIZ)

Areas and Perimeters 270

EXERCISE 4-6 (PROJECT)

Making a File Geodatabase Feature Class for Foozit_Court 271

EXERCISE 4-7 (EXPLORATION)

Understanding Some Things That Don’t Look Right 272

Computers and Inexact Computation 274

EXERCISE 4-8 (PROJECT)

Geodatabase Topology 276

Creating a New Topology 277

Specifying Which Feature Moves When Features Are Adjusted: Rank 277

Topology Rules 278

Validating Topology 279

A Warning: Changes Made through Topology Are Permanent 281

EXERCISE 4-9 (REVIEW)

Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 281

**CHAPTER 5 Geographic and Attribute Data: Selection, Input, and Editing 283**

Concerns about Finding and Collecting Data 283

Looking for Data on the Internet 284

Steps in Developing the Database 284

GPS and GIS 289

Anatomy of the Acronym: GPS 291

What Time Is It? 294

STEP-BY-STEP 295

EXERCISE 5-1 (WARM-UP)

Looking at Areal Representations of the Real World 295

Looking at Reference Systems 296

Looking at Coordinate Systems 298

Using the Reference System to Discover the Boundary Coordinates of a State Plane Zone 299

Primary Lesson 301

EXERCISE 5-2 (PROJECT)

Look at Geographic Data on the web 301

EXERCISE 5-3 (PROJECT)

Digitizing and Transforming 302

A Plan for Digitizing and Transforming 302

Getting Started 303

Loading an Image File as a Layer in ArcMap 303

Loading the New, Blank Shapefi le into ArcMap 305

Adding Line Features to a Shapefi le by Using the Editing Facility in ArcMap 305

Converting a Shapefi le to a Geodatabse Feature Class and Giving It Real-World Coordinates 309

Converting the Shapefi le to a Geodatabase Feature Class 310

Moving the Foozit Court Feature Class into the Real World 310

EXERCISE 5-4 (PROJECT)

Digitizing Directly into a Real-World Coordinate System in a Geodatabase 314

Preliminaries 314

Making the Feature Class That Will Be the Object of the Digitization 315

Georeferencing 315

Moving the Sketch to UTM Zone 2 317

Digitizing the Line Boundaries of the Islands 318

Making Polygons of the Digitized Lines 318

Making Multipart Polygons 319

Five islands divided by county and agency 319

Merging Multipart Polygons 320

EXERCISE 5-5 (WARM-UP)

Digitizing Geodatabase Polygons and Exploring Topology 321

Making Copies of the Feature Class 322

Using “Clip” to Remove Overlaps from the Feature Class 323

Using Topology to Remove Overlaps from the Feature Class 324

EXERCISE 5-6 (PROJECT)

Learning Some Editor Fundamentals 326

The Concept of the Edit Sketch 326

Making Sketches with Snapping 326

Experimenting with Editing Polygons 329

Experimenting with Editor’s Union 329

Experimenting with the Editor’s Intersect 330

Experimenting with the Editor’s Buffer Capabilities 330

Using Undo, Redo, Copy, and Cut 330

Working with Line Editing Again 331

EXERCISE 5-7 (FOLLOW-ON)

Adding the Sixth Island 331

Creating a 3-D Feature 333

EXERCISE 5-8 (PROJECT)

Obtaining Field Data and Joining Tables 335

Organization 336

Environment and Measurement (Spatial Data) 336

Measurements (Non-spatial Data) 337

Recording Data 337

Team Assignments 337

Undertaking the Data Entry Process 338

Making a Table That Contains the Coordinate Data 338

Making a Table That Contains the Student Data 339

Populating the Student_Info Table with Data 340

Joining the Two Tables to Make a Single Table 340

Seeing the Results of the Join 340

EXERCISE 5-9 (REVIEW)

Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 342

**PART II Spatial Analysis and Synthesis with GIS 345**

**CHAPTER 6 Analysis of GIS Data by Simple Examination 347**

Information 347

Computer Hardware—What a Computer Does 349

Continuous and Discrete Phenomena 352

Some Implications of Discrete Representation for GIS 355

Scientific Notation, Numerical Significance, Accuracy, and Precision 356

Precision vs. Accuracy 356

Basic Statistics 359

Putting Values into Classes 361

Measurement Scales 361

STEP-BY-STEP 363

EXERCISE 6-1 (PROJECT)

Reviewing and Learning More of ArcMap 363

Examining the Toolbars 364

Pointing at Records 365

Two Windows Are Available for Selecting 365

Selecting Records (and, Thereby, Features) 366

Looking at the Other Capabilities of the Options Menu 368

Selecting Features (and, Thereby, Records) 368

Quick Selection of Features 368

Selecting by Location 369

Reviewing and Understanding Actions on the Table of Contents 370

Layers and the Data Frames 370

Changing Layer Properties 371

EXERCISE 6-2 (PROJECT)

Categorization and Symbolization 375

Thinking about Maps Again 375

Classification (or Categorization) and Symbolization 375

User Selection of Classes 377

A More Careful Look at Equal Intervals 379

Defined Interval 379

Quantiles 379

Standard Deviation 379

Natural Breaks 380

Normalization 381

Using Charts and Graphs 381

Making a Layout 382

EXERCISE 6-3 (SHORT PROJECT)

Comparing Data Sets: Medically Underserved Areas (MUAs) and Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) 382

EXERCISE 6-4 (MAJOR PROJECT)

Combining Demographic and Geographic Data 386

Obtaining Data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census 387

Converting the Census Data Spreadsheet to dBASEIV Format 388

Using TIGER-Based Street and Block

Shapefiles from Esri 390

Assessing What We Have and What We Need to Solve the Problem 394

Converting the Relevant Files to Cartesian Coordinates 395

Finally 395

EXERCISE 6-5

Determining Proximity of Points to Lines and Other Points 397

EXERCISE 6-6 (REVIEW)

Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 399

**CHAPTER 7 Creating Spatial Feature Classes Based on Proximity, Overlay, and Attributes 403**

Generating Features Based on Proximity: Buffering 403

Generating Features by Overlaying 405

Overlaying with Line and Point Feature Classes 407

Spatial Joins in General 409

Deriving Feature Classes by Selecting Attributes: Extraction 410

STEP-BY-STEP 413

EXERCISE 7-1 (WARM-UP)

Making Trivial Buffers around a Trivial Feature Class 413

EXERCISE 7-2 (PROJECT)

Exploring FEATURE CLASS Buffers with the Wildcat Boat Data 415

Using ArcToolbox to Make Buffer Zones around the Roads 416

Variable-Width Buffers 417

EXERCISE 7-3 (PROJECT)

Manipulate Polygon Feature Classes with Union and Extract 419

Make a New Feature Class from a Subset of Polygons: Extract 423

More Complex Queries—And’s and Or’s 425

Other Polygon Spatial Joins: Intersect and Identity 425

EXERCISE 7-4 (PROJECT)

Use Overlay and Extract with Trivial Point and Line Feature Classes 426

EXERCISE 7-5 (PROJECT) 429

Using Buffer and Overlay Together with Geodatabases 429

The Getrich Saga 429

Deriving Information by Combining Tables 431

Overlaying the Feature Classes 433

EXERCISE 7-6 (PROJECT)

Building a Model of the Getrich Project Solution 435

Create a Python Script from the Gold Model 439

Modify the Python Script from the Gold Model 440

Execute the Python Script 440

EXERCISE 7-7 (MINOR PROJECT)

Making Buffers for Solving the Wildcat Boat Problem 441

EXERCISE 7-8 (PROJECT)

Finding a Site for the Wildcat Boat Facility 442

EXERCISE 7-9 (PROJECT, OPTIONAL)

Solving a Revised Wildcat Boat Problem 446

Understanding Dissolve 446

Making New Sites that Including the COST_HA Field 447

Considering the Site Eccentricity Criterion 448

Making a Model of the Wildcat Boat Solution 450

EXERCISE 7-11 (REVIEW)

Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 452

**CHAPTER 8 Spatial Analysis Based on Raster Data Processing 453**

A Really Different Processing Paradigm 453

Facts about Rasters 454

Coordinate Space 455

Rasters with Integer Cell Values 456

Rasters with Floating-Point Values 459

What Is Raster Storage and Processing Good For? 459

Rasters and Features 461

Rasters: Input, Computation, and Output 461

Where Raster Processing Shines: Cost Incurred Traveling over a Distance 462

Proximity Calculation with Rasters 462

Human Activity, Cost, and Distance 463

Euclidean Distances on the Raster 463

Euclidean Distance and the Spatial Analyst 465

Proving Pythagoras Right 465

Finding the Closest of Multiple Source Cells 466

Excluding Distances beyond a Certain Threshold 467

Other Factors That Infl uence Cost 467

The Cost Distance Mechanism 468

The Cost Distance Calculation 468

Path Calculation in Euclidean Distance and Cost Distance 469

Understanding How Total Costs Are Calculated 470

Getting More Information: Paths and Allocations 471

Direction and Allocation Rasters for Euclidean Distance 471

Direction and Allocation Rasters for Cost Distance 471

A Major Application of Raster Processing: Hydrology 471

Basic Surface Hydrology 473

Basic Surface Hydrology Concepts 474

Calculating Flow Direction 474

The Ultimate Destination of Water Is Off the Raster Area 475

Flow Accumulation: Drainage Delineation and Rainfall Volume 476

Nonuniform Rainfall 477

Calculating the Length of a Potential Linear Water Body 478

Assigning Identities to Streams 479

Vector vs. Raster Representation 480

Assigning Orders to Stream Links 480

Watersheds and Pour Points 481

STEP-BY-STEP 483

EXERCISE 8-1 (PROJECT)

Basic Raster Principles and Operations 483

The Raster Calculator—Integer Rasters 486

Arithmetic Calculation 487

Boolean Operations 488

Floating-Point Rasters 489

EXERCISE 8-2 (PROJECT)

Solving the Original Wildcat Boat Problem with Rasters 491

Setting the General and Raster Environment 491

Converting Features to Rasters 492

Creating Rasters with Linear Features 496

Buffering with Spatial Analyst (Maybe) 497

Buffering—Plan B 498

Reclassifying the Data 498

Adding the Rasters with the Raster Calculator 501

Converting Zones to Regions to Find Individual Sites 502

EXERCISE 8-3 (PROJECT)

Solving a Wildcat Boat Problem with Different Requirements 503

EXERCISE 8-4 (DEMONSTRATION)

Making Surfaces with IDW, Spline, Trend, Nearest Neighbor, and Kriging 506

Points and Density 509

Thiessen, Dirichlet, Voronoi (and, of course, Decartes) 509

EXERCISE 8-5 (PROJECT)

Rasters: Distance and Proximity 511

Making a Raster Showing Straight-Line Distances to a Single Place 511

Examining Many Source Cells and the Capping Distance 514

Developing a Raster with Cost Distance 516

Creating Direction and Allocation Rasters 518

Using Cost Distance to Make Direction and Allocation Rasters 519

Calculating a Least-Cost Path from “A” to “B” 522

EXERCISE 8-6 (PROJECT)

Putting the Tools Together: Find a Site for a Regional Park 523

Setting Things Up 524

Preparing to Create a Cost Surface 526

Building a Cost Surface 527

Improving the Understandability of the Map 529

EXERCISE 8-7 (PROJECT)

Watershed Analysis 529

Examining the Surface with Various Spatial Analyst and 3D Tools 530

Determining the Stream Channels 533

Calculating Stream Order 533

Numbering Each Stream Individually 534

Identifying Basins 534

Finding Pollution Culprits 534

EXERCISE 8-8 (REVIEW)

Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 535

**CHAPTER 9 Other Dimensions, Other Tools, Other Solutions 537**

Two Different Third Dimensions: The Temporal and the Vertical Spatial 537

THE THIRD SPATIAL DIMENSION: OVERVIEW 539

3-D: 2-D (Spatial) Plus 1-D (Spatial) 539

ArcScene 539

ArcGlobe 540

THE THIRD SPATIAL DIMENSION: STEP-BY-STEP 541

An (Almost) New Software Package: ArcScene 541

EXERCISE 9-1 (PROJECT)

Experimenting with 3-D 542

ArcScene 542

What’s 3-D and What’s Not 543

Viewing 3-D Data with Animation 546

Making a TIN and Other 3-D Representations of Elevation 549

Creating DEM fi les with Kriging 551

Creating a Map of Contour Lines 553

Two-and-a-Half Dimensions (2.5-D): Calculating Volumes 553

Calculating a Volume with ArcGIS 554

Other Neat Stuff You Can Do with 3D Analyst: Viewshed and Hillshade 556

A Closer Look at ArcGlobe and Adding Data to It 558

Making a Terrain 560

THE TIME DIMENSION: OVERVIEW 567

3-D: 2-D (Spatial) Plus 1-D (Temporal) 567

THE TIME DIMENSION: STEP-BY-STEP 569

EXERCISE 9-2 (PROJECT)

Looking at Infrastructure Changes Occurring over Time 569

Sliding through Time—Seeing Changes in Features at Intervals 573

ADDRESS GEOCODING: OVERVIEW 575

A Second Fundamental Way of Defining Location 575

TIGER/Line Files 576

Precision of the Geographic Coordinates in TIGER Files 578

Address Locators 579

ADDRESS GEOCODING: STEP-BY-STEP 581

EXERCISE 9-3 (PROJECT)

Experimenting with Addresses and Coordinates 581

Finding the Geographic Position of an Address “Manually” 582

Making an Address Locator 584

Finding the Geographic Position of an Address “Automatically” 584

TIGER Files and ZIP Codes 585

More to Know—More Information Available 586

ANALYSIS OF NETWORKS: OVERVIEW 587

ANALYSIS OF NETWORKS: STEP-BY-STEP 589

EXERCISE 9-4 (PROJECT)

Experimenting with Routes and Allocations 589

Finding the Shortest Route to a Facility 593

Allocating Territories to Facilities 595

LINEAR REFERENCING: OVERVIEW 597

LINEAR REFERENCING: STEP-BY-STEP 599

EXERCISE 9-5 (PROJECT)

Experimenting within Linear Features 599

Intersecting Route Events 603

What’s Not Covered Here 605

EXERCISE 9-6 (REVIEW)

Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File 607

Afterword: From Systems to Science by Michael Goodchild 609

Index 611