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Introduction to Community and Public Health



Introduction to Community and Public Health

Manoj Sharma, Paul W. Branscum, Ashutosh Atri

ISBN: 978-1-118-44838-0 July 2014 Jossey-Bass 576 Pages

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Learn the basics of the five core areas of community and public health

Introduction to Community and Public Health covers the basics in each area of community and public health as identified by the Association of Schools of Public Health. In a student-friendly approach, authors Manoj Sharma, Paul W. Branscum, and Ashutosh Atri discuss epidemiology, biostatistics, social and behavioral sciences, environmental health, and healthy policy and management. Written to serve both graduate and undergraduate public health students, as well as to help prepare for the Certified in Public Health (CPH) exam, Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) exam and Master certified in Health Education Specialist (MCHES) exam, the book covers each of these five core disciplines, plus other important topics such as:

  • Population dynamics and control
  • Air, water, and noise pollution, and other environmental issues
  • Program planning, budgeting, management, and evaluation
  • Systems thinking and leadership in community and public health

Students will gain insight into the descriptive, inferential, and analytical aspects of community and public health, as well as models, methods, and theories in health education and health promotion. Introduction to Community and Public Health provides the foundation necessary to build the skills of tomorrow's community and public health leaders.

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Figures and Tables xiii

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxiii

The Authors xxv

Chapter 1 Introduction to Community and Public Health 1

Learning Objectives 1

Defining Community and Public Health 1

Basic Terms in Community and Public Health 5

Issues in Community and Public Health 10

Factors Affecting Community and Public Health 12

Community and Public Health Organizations 19

Historical Timeline for Community and Public Health 24

Current Challenges in Community and Public Health 37

Summary 40

Key Terms 41

Review Questions 42

Skill-Building Activity 42

 Websites to Explore 43

References 45

Chapter 2 Descriptive Epidemiology in Community and Public Health 49

Learning Objectives 49

Definition, Scope, and Evolution of Epidemiology 49

Descriptive Epidemiology and Analytical Epidemiology 51

Contributions of Epidemiology 52

Uses and Functions of Epidemiology 54

Agent, Host, and Environment 56

Rates, Ratios, Proportions, and Percentages 57

Summary 79

Key Terms 80

Review Questions 81

Skill-Building Activity 81

Websites to Explore 82

References 83

Chapter 3 Analytical Epidemiology in Community and Public Health 87

Learning Objectives 87

Types of Analytical Epidemiological Studies 87

Association and Causation 100

Infectious Disease Epidemiology 103

Chronic Disease Epidemiology 107

Selected Lifestyle Risk Factors 110

Summary 114

Key Terms 115

Review Questions 115

Skill-Building Activity 116

Websites to Explore 116

References 117

Chapter 4 Descriptive Biostatistics in Community and Public Health 123

Learning Objectives 123

Basic Terms in Biostatistics 123

Frequency Distribution 127

Measures of Central Tendency 129

Measures of Dispersion 130

Graphing Methods in Biostatistics 132

Positively Skewed and Negatively Skewed Distributions 132

Summary 138

Key Terms 138

Review Questions 139

Skill-Building Activity 139

Websites to Explore 140

References 142

Chapter 5 Inferential Biostatistics in Community and Public Health 143

Learning Objectives 143

Estimation 143

Hypothesis Testing 145

Testing Differences Between Two Group Means 148

Nonparametric Tests for Testing Differences Between Two Groups 151

Testing Differences Between Three or More Patient Protection and AffordableGroups 152

Nonparametric Counterparts of ANOVA 158

Testing Differences in Proportions 158

Testing Associations Between Two or More Variables 160

Summary 164

Key Terms 165

Review Questions 166

Skill-Building Activity 166

Websites to Explore 167

References 168

Chapter 6 Social and Behavioral Sciences in Community and Public Health 171

Learning Objectives 171

Reasons for Studying Social and Behavioral Sciences 171

Examples from Cardiovascular Disease, Obesity, and HIV/AIDS 180

Community Organization and Community Building 186

Summary 192

Key Terms 193

Review Questions 193

Skill-Building Activity 194

Websites to Explore 194

References 195

Chapter 7 Models in Health Education and Health Promotion 199

Learning Objectives 199

Planning Health Education and Health Promotion Interventions 199




Intervention Mapping 217


PEN-3 220

Summary 226

Key Terms 226

Review Questions 227

Skill-Building Activity 227

Websites to Explore 228

References 229

Chapter 8 Theories in Health Education and Health Promotion 231

Learning Objectives 231

Using Theories and Models 231

Health Belief Model 233

Transtheoretical Model 237

Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Integrative Model 242

Social Cognitive Theory 248

Social Marketing 251

Diffusion of Innovations Theory 254

Summary 259

Key Terms 259

Review Questions 261

Skill-Building Activity 261

Websites to Explore 261

References 262

Chapter 9 Methods in Health Education and Health Promotion 265

Learning Objectives 265

Methods of Teaching and Learning 265

Cognitive Methods in Health Education 268

Affective Methods in Health Education 271

Environmental Methods in Health Promotion 281

Summary 285

Key Terms 286

Review Questions 287

Skill-Building Activity 287

Websites to Explore 287

References 288

Chapter 10 Population Dynamics and Control 291

Learning Objectives 291

Demographic Cycle 291

World Population Trends 292

World Population Stabilizationor Decline Postpeak 299

Summary 310

Key Terms 311

Review Questions 312

Skill-Building Activity 312

Websites to Explore 312

References 314

Chapter 11 Air, Water, and Noise Pollution 315

Learning Objectives 315

Air Pollution 315

Water Pollution 323

Noise Pollution 330

Solid Waste Management 335

Climate Change and Global Warming 337

Summary 342

Key Terms 344

Review Questions 344

Skill-Building Activity 345

Websites to Explore 345

References 346

Chapter 12 Injury Control and Other Environmental Issues 349

Learning Objectives 349

Unintentional Injuries 349

Intentional Injuries 354

Pests and Pesticides 358

Radiation 363

Disaster Management 366

Occupational Safety and Health 369

Summary 377

Key Terms 379

Review Questions 380

Skill-Building Activity 380

Websites to Explore 380

References 381

Chapter 13 Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Services and Public Health Systems in the United States 387

Learning Objectives 387

Understanding the Structure and Functioning of the US

Health Care System 387

Organization of US Health Care 389

The Uninsured Population 393

Lack of Insurance and Access to Health Care Services 396

Financing Health Systems 399

US Health Care in the International Context 400

Utilization Trends 402

Private Health Insurance and Managed Care 404

Cost Containment Initiatives 406

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 408

Organization of Public Health in the United States 410

Summary 415

Key Terms 418

Review Questions 419

Skill-Building Activity 419

Websites to Explore 420

References 421

Chapter 14 Program Planning, Budgeting, Management, and Evaluation in Community Initiatives 425

Learning Objectives 425

Planning Public Health Programs 425

Preparing Budgets for Public Health Programs 432

Administration and Management of Public Health Programs 440

Evaluation of Public Health Programs 445

Summary 451

Key Terms 452

Review Questions 453

Skill-Building Activity 453

Websites to Explore 454

References 455

Chapter 15 Systems Thinking and Leadership in Community and Public Health 457

Learning Objectives 457

Systems Thinking: The Approach 457

Basics of Leadership 462

Leadership Styles 465

Leadership in Health Care 466

NCHL Health Leadership Competency Model 467

Cultural Competence 469

Summary 479

Key Terms 481

Review Questions 482

Skill-Building Activity 482

Websites to Explore 483

References 484

Glossary 489

Index 527