Preface xvii

**1 Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) 1**

1.1 Aspects of EMC 3

1.2 History of EMC 10

1.3 Examples 12

1.4 Electrical Dimensions and Waves 14

1.5 Decibels and Common EMC Units 23

Problems 43

References 48

**2 EMC Requirements for Electronic Systems 49**

2.1 Governmental Requirements 50

2.2 Additional Product Requirements 79

2.3 Design Constraints for Products 82

2.4 Advantages of EMC Design 84

Problems 86

References 89

**3 Signal Spectra—the Relationship between the Time Domain and the Frequency Domain 91**

3.1 Periodic Signals 91

3.3 Spectrum Analyzers 142

3.4 Representation of Nonperiodic Waveforms 148

3.5 Representation of Random (Data) Signals 151

3.6 Use of SPICE (PSPICE) In Fourier Analysis 155

Problems 167

References 175

**4 Transmission Lines and Signal Integrity 177**

4.1 The Transmission-Line Equations 181

4.2 The Per-Unit-Length Parameters 184

4.3 The Time-Domain Solution 204

4.4 High-Speed Digital Interconnects and Signal Integrity 225

4.5 Sinusoidal Excitation of the Line and the Phasor Solution 260

4.6 Lumped-Circuit Approximate Models 283

Problems 287

References 297

**5 Nonideal Behavior of Components 299**

5.1 Wires 300

5.2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Lands 312

5.3 Effect of Component Leads 315

5.4 Resistors 317

5.5 Capacitors 325

5.6 Inductors 336

5.7 Ferromagnetic Materials—Saturation and Frequency Response 340

5.8 Ferrite Beads 343

5.9 Common-Mode Chokes 346

5.10 Electromechanical Devices 352

5.11 Digital Circuit Devices 357

5.12 Effect of Component Variability 358

5.13 Mechanical Switches 359

Problems 369

References 375

**6 Conducted Emissions and Susceptibility 377**

6.1 Measurement of Conducted Emissions 378

6.2 Power Supply Filters 385

6.3 Power Supplies 401

6.4 Power Supply and Filter Placement 414

6.5 Conducted Susceptibility 416

Problems 416

References 419

**7 Antennas 421**

7.1 Elemental Dipole Antennas 421

7.2 The Half-Wave Dipole and Quarter-Wave Monopole Antennas 429

7.3 Antenna Arrays 440

7.4 Characterization of Antennas 448

7.5 The Friis Transmission Equation 466

7.6 Effects of Reflections 470

7.7 Broadband Measurment Antennas 486

Problems 494

References 501

**8 Radiated Emissions and Susceptibility 503**

8.1 Simple Emission Models for Wires and PCB Lands 504

8.2 Simple Susceptibility Models for Wires and PCB Lands 533

Problems 550

References 556

**9 Crosstalk 559**

9.1 Three-Conductor Transmission Lines and Crosstalk 560

9.2 The Transmission-Line Equations for Lossless Lines 564

9.3 The Per-Unit-Length Parameters 567

9.4 The Inductive–Capacitive Coupling Approximate Model 595

9.5 Lumped-Circuit Approximate Models 624

9.6 An Exact SPICE (PSPICE) Model for Lossless, Coupled Lines 624

9.7 Shielded Wires 647

9.8 Twisted Wires 677

Problems 701

References 710

**10 Shielding 713**

10.1 Shielding Effectiveness 718

10.2 Shielding Effectiveness: Far-Field Sources 721

10.3 Shielding Effectiveness: Near-Field Sources 735

10.4 Low-Frequency, Magnetic Field Shielding 742

10.5 Effect of Apertures 745

Problems 750

References 751

**11 System Design for EMC 753**

11.1 Changing the Way We Think about Electrical Phenomena 758

11.2 What Do We Mean by the Term “Ground”? 768

11.3 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design 805

11.4 System Configuration and Design 827

11.5 Diagnostic Tools 847

Problem 856

References 857

**Appendix A The Phasor Solution Method 859**

A.1 Solving Differential Equations for Their Sinusoidal, Steady-State Solution 859

A.2 Solving Electric Circuits for Their Sinusoidal, Steady-State Response 863

Problems 867

References 869

**Appendix B The Electromagnetic Field Equations and Waves 871**

B.1 Vector Analysis 872

B.2 Maxwell’s Equations 881

B.2.1 Faraday’s Law 881

B.2.2 Ampere’s Law 892

B.2.3 Gauss’ Laws 898

B.2.4 Conservation of Charge 900

B.2.5 Constitutive Parameters of the Medium 900

B.3 Boundary Conditions 902

B.4 Sinusoidal Steady State 907

B.5 Power Flow 909

B.6 Uniform Plane Waves 909

B.6.1 Lossless Media 912

B.6.2 Lossy Media 918

B.6.3 Power Flow 922

B.6.4 Conductors versus Dielectrics 923

B.6.5 Skin Depth 925

B.7 Static (DC) Electromagnetic Field Relations— a Special Case 927

B.7.1 Maxwell’s Equations for Static (DC) Fields 927

B.7.1.1 Range of Applicability for

Low-Frequency Fields 928

B.7.2 Two-Dimensional Fields and Laplace’s Equation 928

Problems 930

References 939

**Appendix C Computer Codes for Calculating the Per-Unit-Length (PUL) Parameters and Crosstalk of Multiconductor Transmission Lines 941**

C.1 WIDESEP.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Widely Spaced Wires 942

C.2 RIBBON.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Ribbon Cables 947

C.3 PCB.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Printed Circuit Boards 949

C.4 MSTRP.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Coupled Microstrip Lines 951

C.5 STRPLINE.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Coupled Striplines 952

C.6 SPICEMTL.FOR for Computing a SPICE (PSPICE) Subcircuit Model of a Lossless, Multiconductor Transmission Line 954

C.7 SPICELPI.FOR For Computing a SPICE (PSPICE) Subcircuit of a Lumped-Pi Model of a Lossless, Multiconductor Transmission Line 956

**Appendix D A SPICE (PSPICE) Tutorial 959**

D.1 Creating the SPICE or PSPICE Program 960

D.2 Circuit Description 961

D.3 Execution Statements 966

D.4 Output Statements 968

D.5 Examples 970

References 974

Index 975