# Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2nd Edition

# Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-75815-0

Jan 2006

1016 pages

## Description

A Landmark text thoroughly updated, including a new CDAs digital devices continue to be produced at increasingly lower costs and with higher speeds, the need for effective electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design practices has become more critical than ever to avoid unnecessary costs in bringing products into compliance with governmental regulations. The Second Edition of this landmark text has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect these major developments that affect both academia and the electronics industry. Readers familiar with the First Edition will find much new material, including:

* Latest U.S. and international regulatory requirements

* PSpice used throughout the textbook to simulate EMC analysis solutions

* Methods of designing for Signal Integrity

* Fortran programs for the simulation of Crosstalk supplied on a CD

* OrCAD(r) PSpice(r) Release 10.0 and Version 8 Demo Edition software supplied on a CD

* The final chapter on System Design for EMC completely rewritten

* The chapter on Crosstalk rewritten to simplify the mathematics

Detailed, worked-out examples are now included throughout the text. In addition, review exercises are now included following the discussion of each important topic to help readers assess their grasp of the material. Several appendices are new to this edition including Phasor Analysis of Electric Circuits, The Electromagnetic Field Equations and Waves, Computer Codes for Calculating the Per-Unit-Length Parameters and Crosstalk of Multiconductor Transmission Lines, and a SPICE (PSPICE) tutorial.

Now thoroughly updated, the Second Edition of Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility remains the textbook of choice for university/college EMC courses as well as a reference for EMC design engineers.

An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

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### Instructor

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Preface xvii

**1 Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) 1**

1.1 Aspects of EMC 3

1.2 History of EMC 10

1.3 Examples 12

1.4 Electrical Dimensions and Waves 14

1.5 Decibels and Common EMC Units 23

1.5.1 Power Loss in Cables 32

1.5.2 Signal Source Specification 37

Problems 43

References 48

**2 EMC Requirements for Electronic Systems 49**

2.1 Governmental Requirements 50

2.1.1 Requirements for Commercial Products Marketed in the United States 50

2.1.2 Requirements for Commercial Products Marketed outside the United States 55

2.1.3 Requirements for Military Products Marketed in the United States 60

2.1.4 Measurement of Emissions for Verification of Compliance 62

2.1.5 Typical Product Emissions 72

2.1.6 A Simple Example to Illustrate the Difficulty in Meeting the Regulatory Limits 78

2.2 Additional Product Requirements 79

2.2.1 Radiated Susceptibility (Immunity) 81

2.2.2 Conducted Susceptibility (Immunity) 81

2.2.3 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) 81

2.2.4 Requirements for Commercial Aircraft 82

2.2.5 Requirements for Commercial Vehicles 82

2.3 Design Constraints for Products 82

2.4 Advantages of EMC Design 84

Problems 86

References 89

**3 Signal Spectra—the Relationship between the Time Domain and the Frequency Domain 91**

3.1 Periodic Signals 91

3.1.1 The Fourier Series Representation of Periodic Signals 94

3.1.2 Response of Linear Systems to Periodic Input Signals 104

3.1.3 Important Computational Techniques 111

3.2 Spectra of Digital Waveforms 118

3.2.1 The Spectrum of Trapezoidal (Clock) Waveforms 118

3.2.2 Spectral Bounds for Trapezoidal Waveforms 122

3.2.3 Use of Spectral Bounds in Computing Bounds on the Output Spectrum of a Linear System 140

3.3 Spectrum Analyzers 142

3.3.1 Basic Principles 142

3.3.2 Peak versus Quasi-Peak versus Average 146

3.4 Representation of Nonperiodic Waveforms 148

3.4.1 The Fourier Transform 148

3.4.2 Response of Linear Systems to Nonperiodic Inputs 151

3.5 Representation of Random (Data) Signals 151

3.6 Use of SPICE (PSPICE) In Fourier Analysis 155

Problems 167

References 175

**4 Transmission Lines and Signal Integrity 177**

4.1 The Transmission-Line Equations 181

4.2 The Per-Unit-Length Parameters 184

4.2.1 Wire-Type Structures 186

4.2.2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Structures 199

4.3 The Time-Domain Solution 204

4.3.1 Graphical Solutions 204

4.3.2 The SPICE Model 218

4.4 High-Speed Digital Interconnects and Signal Integrity 225

4.4.1 Effect of Terminations on the Line Waveforms 230

4.4.2 Matching Schemes for Signal Integrity 238

4.4.3 When Does the Line Not Matter, i.e., When is Matching Not Required? 244

4.4.4 Effects of Line Discontinuities 247

4.5 Sinusoidal Excitation of the Line and the Phasor Solution 260

4.5.1 Voltage and Current as Functions of Position 261

4.5.2 Power Flow 269

4.5.3 Inclusion of Losses 270

4.5.4 Effect of Losses on Signal Integrity 273

4.6 Lumped-Circuit Approximate Models 283

Problems 287

References 297

**5 Nonideal Behavior of Components 299**

5.1 Wires 300

5.1.1 Resistance and Internal Inductance of Wires 304

5.1.2 External Inductance and Capacitance of Parallel Wires 308

5.1.3 Lumped Equivalent Circuits of Parallel Wires 309

5.2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Lands 312

5.3 Effect of Component Leads 315

5.4 Resistors 317

5.5 Capacitors 325

5.6 Inductors 336

5.7 Ferromagnetic Materials—Saturation and Frequency Response 340

5.8 Ferrite Beads 343

5.9 Common-Mode Chokes 346

5.10 Electromechanical Devices 352

5.10.1 DC Motors 352

5.10.2 Stepper Motors 355

5.10.3 AC Motors 355

5.10.4 Solenoids 356

5.11 Digital Circuit Devices 357

5.12 Effect of Component Variability 358

5.13 Mechanical Switches 359

5.13.1 Arcing at Switch Contacts 360

5.13.2 The Showering Arc 363

5.13.3 Arc Suppression 364

Problems 369

References 375

**6 Conducted Emissions and Susceptibility 377**

6.1 Measurement of Conducted Emissions 378

6.1.1 The Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) 379

6.1.2 Common- and Differential-Mode Currents Again 381

6.2 Power Supply Filters 385

6.2.1 Basic Properties of Filters 385

6.2.2 A Generic Power Supply Filter Topology 388

6.2.3 Effect of Filter Elements on Common- and Differential-Mode Currents 390

6.2.4 Separation of Conducted Emissions into Commonand Differential-Mode Components for Diagnostic Purposes 396

6.3 Power Supplies 401

6.3.1 Linear Power Supplies 405

6.3.2 Switched-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) 406

6.3.3 Effect of Power Supply Components on Conducted Emissions 409

6.4 Power Supply and Filter Placement 414

6.5 Conducted Susceptibility 416

Problems 416

References 419

**7 Antennas 421**

7.1 Elemental Dipole Antennas 421

7.1.1 The Electric (Hertzian) Dipole 422

7.1.2 The Magnetic Dipole (Loop) 426

7.2 The Half-Wave Dipole and Quarter-Wave Monopole Antennas 429

7.3 Antenna Arrays 440

7.4 Characterization of Antennas 448

7.4.1 Directivity and Gain 448

7.4.2 Effective Aperture 454

7.4.3 Antenna Factor 456

7.4.4 Effects of Balancing and Baluns 460

7.4.5 Impedance Matching and the Use of Pads 463

7.5 The Friis Transmission Equation 466

7.6 Effects of Reflections 470

7.6.1 The Method of Images 470

7.6.2 Normal Incidence of Uniform Plane Waves on Plane, Material Boundaries 470

7.6.3 Multipath Effects 479

7.7 Broadband Measurment Antennas 486

7.7.1 The Biconical Antenna 487

7.7.2 The Log-Periodic Antenna 490

Problems 494

References 501

**8 Radiated Emissions and Susceptibility 503**

8.1 Simple Emission Models for Wires and PCB Lands 504

8.1.1 Differential-Mode versus Common-Mode Currents 504

8.1.2 Differential-Mode Current Emission Model 509

8.1.3 Common-Mode Current Emission Model 514

8.1.4 Current Probes 518

8.1.5 Experimental Results 523

8.2 Simple Susceptibility Models for Wires and PCB Lands 533

8.2.1 Experimental Results 544

8.2.2 Shielded Cables and Surface Transfer Impedance 546

Problems 550

References 556

**9 Crosstalk 559**

9.1 Three-Conductor Transmission Lines and Crosstalk 560

9.2 The Transmission-Line Equations for Lossless Lines 564

9.3 The Per-Unit-Length Parameters 567

9.3.1 Homogeneous versus Inhomogeneous Media 568

9.3.2 Wide-Separation Approximations for Wires 570

9.3.3 Numerical Methods for Other Structures 580

9.4 The Inductive–Capacitive Coupling Approximate Model 595

9.4.1 Frequency-Domain Inductive-Capacitive Coupling Model 599

9.4.2 Time-Domain Inductive–Capacitive Coupling Model 612

9.5 Lumped-Circuit Approximate Models 624

9.6 An Exact SPICE (PSPICE) Model for Lossless, Coupled Lines 624

9.6.1 Computed versus Experimental Results for Wires 633

9.6.2 Computed versus Experimental Results for PCBs 640

9.7 Shielded Wires 647

9.7.1 Per-Unit-Length Parameters 648

9.7.2 Inductive and Capacitive Coupling 651

9.7.3 Effect of Shield Grounding 658

9.7.4 Effect of Pigtails 667

9.7.5 Effects of Multiple Shields 669

9.7.6 MTL Model Predictions 675

9.8 Twisted Wires 677

9.8.1 Per-Unit-Length Parameters 681

9.8.2 Inductive and Capacitive Coupling 685

9.8.3 Effects of Twist 689

9.8.4 Effects of Balancing 698

Problems 701

References 710

**10 Shielding 713**

10.1 Shielding Effectiveness 718

10.2 Shielding Effectiveness: Far-Field Sources 721

10.2.1 Exact Solution 721

10.2.2 Approximate Solution 725

10.3 Shielding Effectiveness: Near-Field Sources 735

10.3.1 Near Field versus Far Field 736

10.3.2 Electric Sources 740

10.3.3 Magnetic Sources 740

10.4 Low-Frequency, Magnetic Field Shielding 742

10.5 Effect of Apertures 745

Problems 750

References 751

**11 System Design for EMC 753**

11.1 Changing the Way We Think about Electrical Phenomena 758

11.1.1 Nonideal Behavior of Components and the Hidden Schematic 758

11.1.2 “Electrons Do Not Read Schematics” 763

11.1.3 What Do We Mean by the Term “Shielding”? 766

11.2 What Do We Mean by the Term “Ground”? 768

11.2.1 Safety Ground 771

11.2.2 Signal Ground 774

11.2.3 Ground Bounce and Partial Inductance 775

11.2.4 Currents Return to Their Source on the Paths of Lowest Impedance 787

11.2.5 Utilizing Mutual Inductance and Image Planes to Force Currents to Return on a Desired Path 793

11.2.6 Single-Point Grounding, Multipoint Grounding, and Hybrid Grounding 796

11.2.7 Ground Loops and Subsystem Decoupling 802

11.3 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design 805

11.3.1 Component Selection 805

11.3.2 Component Speed and Placement 806

11.3.3 Cable I/O Placement and Filtering 808

11.3.4 The Important Ground Grid 810

11.3.5 Power Distribution and Decoupling Capacitors 812

11.3.6 Reduction of Loop Areas 822

11.3.7 Mixed-Signal PCB Partitioning 823

11.4 System Configuration and Design 827

11.4.1 System Enclosures 827

11.4.2 Power Line Filter Placement 828

11.4.3 Interconnection and Number of Printed Circuit Boards 829

11.4.4 Internal Cable Routing and Connector Placement 831

11.4.5 PCB and Subsystem Placement 832

11.4.6 PCB and Subsystem Decoupling 832

11.4.7 Motor Noise Suppression 832

11.4.8 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) 834

11.5 Diagnostic Tools 847

11.5.1 The Concept of Dominant Effect in the Diagnosis of EMC Problems 850

Problem 856

References 857

**Appendix A The Phasor Solution Method 859**

A.1 Solving Differential Equations for Their Sinusoidal, Steady-State Solution 859

A.2 Solving Electric Circuits for Their Sinusoidal, Steady-State Response 863

Problems 867

References 869

**Appendix B The Electromagnetic Field Equations and Waves 871**

B.1 Vector Analysis 872

B.2 Maxwell’s Equations 881

B.2.1 Faraday’s Law 881

B.2.2 Ampere’s Law 892

B.2.3 Gauss’ Laws 898

B.2.4 Conservation of Charge 900

B.2.5 Constitutive Parameters of the Medium 900

B.3 Boundary Conditions 902

B.4 Sinusoidal Steady State 907

B.5 Power Flow 909

B.6 Uniform Plane Waves 909

B.6.1 Lossless Media 912

B.6.2 Lossy Media 918

B.6.3 Power Flow 922

B.6.4 Conductors versus Dielectrics 923

B.6.5 Skin Depth 925

B.7 Static (DC) Electromagnetic Field Relations—a Special Case 927

B.7.1 Maxwell’s Equations for Static (DC) Fields 927

B.7.2 Two-Dimensional Fields and Laplace’s

Equation 928

Problems 930

References 939

**Appendix C Computer Codes for Calculating the Per-Unit-Length (PUL) Parameters and Crosstalk of Multiconductor Transmission Lines 941**

C.1 WIDESEP.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Widely Spaced Wires 942

C.2 RIBBON.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Ribbon Cables 947

C.3 PCB.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Printed Circuit Boards 949

C.4 MSTRP.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Coupled Microstrip Lines 951

C.5 STRPLINE.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Coupled Striplines 952

C.6 SPICEMTL.FOR for Computing a SPICE (PSPICE) Subcircuit Model of a Lossless, Multiconductor Transmission Line 954

C.7 SPICELPI.FOR For Computing a SPICE (PSPICE) Subcircuit of a Lumped-Pi Model of a Lossless,

Multiconductor Transmission Line 956

**Appendix D A SPICE (PSPICE) Tutorial 959**

D.1 Creating the SPICE or PSPICE Program 960

D.2 Circuit Description 961

D.3 Execution Statements 966

D.4 Output Statements 968

D.5 Examples 970

References 974

Index 975

*CHOICE*, September 2006)

- A thorough revision and updating of the very successful 1992 edition
- The author has designed and introduced the first EMC courses offered in universities. These courses are now offered in all EE departments
- This edition has a wealth of worked examples and problems
- The book will be accompanied by a web site offering additional aides for students and instructors
- EMC standards are set by the government and must be followed for all electronic devices sold in the United States and worldwide
- An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.