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Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition

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Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition

Morris Hein, Scott Pattison, Susan Arena, Leo R. Best

ISBN: 978-1-118-80199-4 December 2013 1072 Pages

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The most comprehensive book available on the subject, Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition continues its tradition of fostering the development of problem-solving skills, featuring numerous examples and coverage of current applications. Skillfully anticipating areas of difficulty and pacing the material accordingly, this readable work provides clear and logical explanations of chemical concepts as well as the right mix of general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. An emphasis on real-world topics lets readers clearly see how the chemistry will apply to their career.

Related Resources

1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1

1.1 The Nature of Chemistry 2

1.2 A Scientific Approach to Problem Solving 3

1.3 The Particulate Nature of Matter 5

1.4 Classifying Matter 7

Review 9

Review Questions 10

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises 11

Answers to Practice Exercises 12

2 Standards for Measurement 13

2.1 Scientific Notation 14

2.2 Measurement and Uncertainty 15

2.3 Significant Figures 16

2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations 18

2.5 The Metric System 21

2.6 Dimensional Analysis: A Problem-Solving Method 27

2.7 Measurement of Temperature 30 Chemistry in action Setting Standards 32

2.8 Density 34       

Review 37

Review Questions 38

Paired Exercises 39

Additional Exercises 41

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 43

3 Elements and Compounds 44

3.1 Elements 45

3.2 Introduction to the Periodic Table 49

3.3 Compounds and Formulas 52

Review 57

Review Questions 58

Paired Exercises 59

Additional Exercises 60

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 61

4 Properties of Matter 62

4.1 Properties of Substances 63

4.2 Physical and Chemical Changes 65

4.3 Learning to Solve Problems 68

4.4 Energy 68

4.5 Heat: Quantitative Measurement 70

4.6 Energy in the Real World 72

Review 74

Review Questions 75

Paired Exercises 76

Additional Exercises 77

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 78

Putting It Together Chapters 1–4 review 79

5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure 82

5.1 Dalton’s Model of the Atom 83

5.2 Electric Charge 84

5.3 Subatomic Parts of the Atom 85

5.4 The Nuclear Atom 87

5.5 Isotopes of the Elements 89

5.6 Atomic Mass 92

Review 93

Review Questions 94

Paired Exercises 95

Additional Exercises 96

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 97

6 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds 98

6.1 Common and Systematic Names 99

6.2 Elements and Ions 100

6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds 103

6.4 Naming Binary Compounds 105

6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 109

6.6 Acids 111

Review 114

Review Questions 115

Paired Exercises 116

Additional Exercises 117

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 118

Putting It Together Chapters 5–6 review 119

7 Quantitative Composition of Compounds 121

7.1 The Mole 122

7.2 Molar Mass of Compounds 126

7.3 Percent Composition of Compounds 129

7.4 Calculating Empirical Formulas 133

7.5 Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula 135

Review 138

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 139

Additional Exercises 141

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 142

8 Chemical Equations 143

8.1 The Chemical Equation 144

8.2 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 145

8.3 Types of Chemical Equations 150

8.4 Heat in Chemical Reactions 156

8.5 Global Warming: The Greenhouse Effect 159

Review 161

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 163

Additional Exercises 165

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 166

9 Calculations from Chemical Equations 167

9.1 Introduction to Stoichiometry 168

9.2 Mole–Mole Calculations 170

9.3 Mole–Mass Calculations 173

9.4 Mass–Mass Calculations 174

9.5 Limiting Reactant and Yield Calculations 176

Review 182

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 183

Additional Exercises 185

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 187

Putting It Together Chapters 7–9 review 188

10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 191

10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 192

10.2 The Bohr Atom 193

10.3 Energy Levels of Electrons 195

10.4 Atomic Structures of the First 18 Elements 198

10.5 Electron Structures and the Periodic Table 201

Review 206

Review Questions 207

Paired Exercises 208

Additional Exercises 210

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 211

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 212

11.1 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 213

11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 216

11.3 The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 217

11.4 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds 222

11.5 The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons 224

11.6 Electronegativity 226

11.7 Lewis Structures of Compounds 229

11.8 Complex Lewis Structures 232

11.9 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 234

11.10 Molecular Shape 235

Review 239

Review Questions 240

Paired Exercises 241

Additional Exercises 243

Challenge Exercises 244

Answers to Practice Exercises 245

Putting It Together Chapters 10–11 review 246

12 The Gaseous State of Matter 248

12.1 Properties of Gases 249

12.2 Boyle’s Law 252

12.3 Charles’ Law 256

12.4 Avogadro’s Law 259

12.5 Combined Gas Laws 260

12.6 Ideal Gas Law 264

12.7 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 267

12.8 Density of Gases 270

12.9 Gas Stoichiometry 270

Review 274

Review Questions 276

Paired Exercises 277

Additional Exercises 279

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 281

13 Liquids 282

13.1 States of Matter: A Review 283

13.2 Properties of Liquids 283

13.3 Boiling Point and Melting Point 286

13.4 Changes of State 288

13.5 Intermolecular Forces 290

13.6 Hydrates 295

13.7 Water, a Unique Liquid 297

Review 300

Review Questions 301

Paired Exercises 302

Additional Exercises 303

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 304

14 Solutions 305

14.1 General Properties of Solutions 306

14.2 Solubility 307

14.3 Rate of Dissolving Solids 311

14.4 Concentration of Solutions 312

14.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions 320

14.6 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure 325

Review 326

Review Questions 328

Paired Exercises 329

Additional Exercises 332

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 333

Putting It Together Chapters 12–14 review 334

15 Acids, Bases, and Salts 337

15.1 Acids and Bases 338

15.2 Reactions of Acids and Bases 342

15.3 Salts 343

15.4 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 344

15.5 Introduction to pH 349

15.6 Neutralization 352

15.7 Writing Net Ionic Equations 354

15.8 Acid Rain 356

Review 357

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 359

Additional Exercises 361

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 362

16 Chemical Equilibrium 363

16.1 Rates of Reaction 364

16.2 Chemical Equilibrium 365

16.3 Le Châtelier’s Principle 366

16.4 Equilibrium Constants 373

16.5 Ion Product Constant for Water 374

16.6 Ionization Constants 376

16.7 Solubility Product Constant 378

16.8 Buffer Solutions: The Control of pH 381

Review 383

Review Questions 384

Paired Exercises 385

Additional Exercises 387

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 389

17 Oxidation–Reduction 390

17.1 Oxidation Number 391

17.2 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations 395

17.3 Balancing Ionic Redox Equations 398

17.4 Activity Series of Metals 401

17.5 Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells 403

Review 407

Review Questions 409

Paired Exercises 410

Additional Exercises 412

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 413

Putting It Together Chapters 15–17 review 414

18 Nuclear Chemistry 417

18.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 418

18.2 Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, and Gamma Rays 421

18.3 Radioactive Disintegration Series 424

18.4 Measurement of Radioactivity 426

18.5 Nuclear Energy 427

18.6 Mass–Energy Relationship in Nuclear Reactions 433

18.7 Biological Effects of Radiation 434

Review 436

Review Questions 437

Paired Exercises 438

Additional Exercises 439

Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 440

Putting It Together Chapter 18 review 441

19 Organic Chemistry: Saturated Hydrocarbons 443

19.1 Organic Chemistry: History and Scope 444

19.2 The Carbon Atom: Bonding, Shape, and Hybridization 445

19.3 Classifying Organic Compounds 447

19.4 Hydrocarbons 449

19.5 Saturated Hydrocarbons: Alkanes 450

19.6 Structural Formulas 451

19.7 Isomerism 453

19.8 Naming Organic Compounds 456

19.9 Introduction to the Reactions of Carbon 461

19.10 Reactions of Alkanes 463

19.11 Cycloalkanes 468

19.12 Gasoline: A Major Petroleum Product 471

Review 473

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 475

Additional Exercises 478

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 479

20 Unsaturated and Aromatic Hydrocarbons 481

20.1 Bonding in Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 482

20.2 Nomenclature of Alkenes 484

20.3 Geometric Isomerism in Alkenes 487

20.4 Cycloalkenes 492

20.5 Preparation and Properties of Alkenes 493

20.6 Nomenclature and Properties of Alkynes 499

20.7 Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Structure of Benzene 501

20.8 Naming Aromatic Compounds 503

20.9 Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 508

20.10 Sources and Properties of Aromatic Hydrocarbons 510

Review 513

Review Questions 514

Paired Exercises 515

Additional Exercises, Challenge Exercises 518

Answers to Practice Exercises 519

21 Polymers: Macromolecules 520

21.1 Macromolecules 521

21.2 Synthetic Polymers 521

21.3 Polymer Types 522

21.4 Addition Polymerization 523

21.5 Recycling Plastics 525

21.6 Butadiene Polymers 527

21.7 Geometric Isomerism in Polymers 529

Review 530

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 531

Additional Exercises, Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 532

Putting It Together Chapters 19–21 review 533

22 Alcohols, Ethers, Phenols, and Thiols 537

22.1 Structure and Classification of Alcohols 538

22.2 Naming Alcohols 540

22.3 Physical Properties of Alcohols 542

22.4 Chemical Properties of Alcohols 544

22.5 Common Alcohols 551

22.6 Phenols 554

22.7 Properties and Preparation of Phenols 557

22.8 Ethers 558

22.9 Properties and Preparation of Ethers 561

22.10 Thiols 563

Review 564

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 566

Additional Exercises, Challenge Exercises 570

Answers to Practice Exercises 571

23 Aldehydes and Ketones 572

23.1 Structures of Aldehydes and Ketones 573

23.2 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones 573

23.3 Bonding and Physical Properties 577

23.4 Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones 580

23.5 Common Aldehydes and Ketones 588

23.6 Condensation Polymers 590

Review 591

Review Questions 592

Paired Exercises 593

Additional Exercises 595

Challenge Exercise 596

Answers to Practice Exercises 597

Putting It Together Chapters 22–23 review 598

24 Carboxylic Acids and Esters 603

24.1 Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature and Sources of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids 604

24.2 Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids 607

24.3 Classification of Carboxylic Acids 609

24.4 Preparation and Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids 613

24.5 Nomenclature of Esters 618

24.6 Occurrence and Physical Properties of Esters 621

24.7 Polyesters: Condensation Polymers 621

24.8 Chemical Properties of Esters 622

24.9 Glycerol Esters 624

24.10 Soaps and Synthetic Detergents 627

24.11 Esters and Anhydrides of Phosphoric Acid 631

Review 632

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 635

Additional Exercises 638

Challenge Exercises 639

Answers to Practice Exercises 640

25 Amides and Amines: Organic Nitrogen Compounds 641

25.1 Amides: Nomenclature and Physical Properties 642

25.2 Chemical Properties of Amides 646

25.3 Polyamides: Condensation Polymers 647

25.4 Urea 648

25.5 Amines: Nomenclature and Physical Properties 648

25.6 Preparation of Amines 653

25.7 Chemical Properties of Amines 654

25.8 Sources and Uses of Selected Amines 657

Review 660

Review Questions 661

Paired Exercises 662

Additional Exercises 664

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 665

Putting It Together Chapters 24–25 review 666

26 Stereoisomerism 671

26.1 Review of Isomerism 672

26.2 Plane-Polarized Light and Optical Activity 672

26.3 Fischer Projection Formulas 675

26.4 Enantiomers 677

26.5 Racemic Mixtures 682

26.6 Diastereomers and Meso Compounds 684

Review 687

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 688

Additional Exercises 691

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 692

27 Carbohydrates 694

27.1 Carbohydrates: A First Class of Biochemicals 695

27.2 Classification of Carbohydrates 696

27.3 Importance of Carbohydrates for Life 698

27.4 Common Monosaccharides 699

27.5 Structure of Glucose and Other Aldoses 700

27.6 Cyclic Structures of Common Hexoses 704

27.7 Hemiacetals and Acetals 708

27.8 Pentoses 709

27.9 Structures and Properties of Disaccharides 710

27.10 Sweeteners and Diet 713

27.11 Redox Reactions of Monosaccharides 715

27.12 Polysaccharides 719

Review 724

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 727

Additional Exercises, Challenge Exercises 729

Answers to Practice Exercises 730

28 Lipids 731

28.1 Lipid Characteristics and Classification 732

28.2 Simple Lipids 733

28.3 Fats in Metabolism 738

28.4 Compound Lipids 739

28.5 Steroids 743

28.6 Hydrophobic Lipids and Biology 744

Review 750

Review Questions 751

Paired Exercises 752

Additional Exercises, Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 753

Putting It Together Chapters 26–28 review 754

29 Amino Acids, Polypeptides, and Proteins 759

29.1 The Structure–Function Connection 760

29.2 The Nature of Amino Acids 760

29.3 Formation of Polypeptides 766

29.4 Protein Structure 770

29.5 Protein Functions 773

29.6 Some Examples of Proteins and Their Structures 775

29.7 Loss of Protein Structure 783

29.8 Tests for Proteins and Amino Acids 784

29.9 Determination of the Primary Structure of Polypeptides 787

Review 789

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 792

Additional Exercises 794

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 795

30 Enzymes 796

30.1 Molecular Accelerators 797

30.2 Rates of Chemical Reactions 798

30.3 Enzyme Kinetics 801

30.4 Industrial-Strength Enzymes 803

30.5 Enzyme Active Site 805

30.6 Temperature and pH Effects on Enzyme Catalysis 808

30.7 Enzyme Regulation 809

Review 811

Review Questions 812

Paired Exercises 813

Additional Exercises, Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 814

31 Nucleic Acids and Heredity 815

31.1 Molecules of Heredity—Bases and Nucleosides 816

31.2 Nucleotides: Phosphate Esters 819

31.3 High-Energy Nucleotides 820

31.4 Polynucleotides; Nucleic Acids 822

31.5 Structure of DNA 823

31.6 DNA Replication 827

31.7 RNA: Genetic Transcription 833

31.8 The Genetic Code—Genes and Medicine 836

31.9 Biosynthesis of Proteins 839

31.10 Changing the Genome: Mutations and Genetic Engineering 840

Review 844

Review Questions 846

Paired Exercises 847

Additional Exercises, Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 848

Putting It Together Chapters 29–31 review 850

32 Nutrition 854

32.1 Nutrients and Diet 855

32.2 Energy in the Diet 857

32.3 Macronutrients 858

32.4 Vitamins, Vital Micronutrients 861

32.5 Minerals 863

32.6 Water 864

32.7 Nutrition Content Labeling 864

32.8 Food Additives 866

32.9 A Balanced Diet 868

32.10 Human Digestion 870

Review 873

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 875

Additional Exercises 876

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 877

33 Bioenergetics 878

33.1 Metabolism and Cell Structure 879

33.2 Biological Oxidation–Reduction: An Important Energy Source 880

33.3 Molecular Oxygen and Metabolism 884

33.4 High-Energy Phosphate Bonds 885

33.5 Phosphorylation: Energy Transfer 886

33.6 ATP Use and Muscle Contraction 889

33.7 Photosynthesis 892

Review 893

Review Questions 894

Paired Exercises 895

Additional Exercises, Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 896

34 Carbohydrate Metabolism 897

34.1 Metabolic Pathways, Carbohydrates, and Cooperation 898

34.2 Anaerobic Sequence 903

34.3 Citric Acid Cycle (Aerobic Sequence) 907

34.4 Gluconeogenesis 910

34.5 Overview of Complex Metabolic Pathways 910

34.6 Hormones 912

34.7 Blood Glucose and Hormones 913

Review 915

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 917

Additional Exercises 918

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 919

35 Metabolism of Lipids and Proteins 920

35.1 Metabolic Energy Sources: Organs Working Together for the Common Good 921

35.2 Fatty Acid Oxidation (Beta Oxidation) 922

35.3 Fat Storage and Biosynthesis (Lipogenesis) 926

35.4 Ketone Bodies 928

35.5 Metabolic Nitrogen Fixation 929

35.6 Amino Acids and Metabolic Nitrogen Balance 931

35.7 Amino Acids and Nitrogen Transfer 932

35.8 Nitrogen Excretion and the Urea Cycle 934

35.9 Acetyl-CoA, Central Molecule in Metabolism 936

Review 938

Review Questions, Paired Exercises 940

Additional Exercises, Challenge Exercise 941

Answers to Practice Exercises 942

Putting It Together Chapters 32–35 review 943

Appendices

I. Mathematical Review A-1

II. Using a Scientific Calculator A-10

III. Units of Measurement A-14

IV. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures A-15

V. Solubility Table A-16

VI. Answers to Selected Exercises A-17

VII. Answers to Putting It Together Review Exercises A-48

Glossary G-1

Index I-1