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Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism Prevention and Emergency Management, 2nd Edition

Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism Prevention and Emergency Management, 2nd Edition

David A. McEntire

ISBN: 978-1-119-43063-6

Sep 2018

416 pages

$69.99

Description

Introduces readers to the world of homeland security and provides them with up-to-date information on recent attacks, new terrorist threats, visible terrorist organizations, current dilemmas, updated research, and best practices

This book provides comprehensive coverage of issues relating to terrorism, terrorist behavior, homeland security policies, and emergency management. It offers a foundation that spans the readily apparent chasm between the homeland security and disaster communities, and covers the stages of emergency management with a focus on terrorism prevention and response. Based on both the academic literature and practical understanding, the book includes research findings, covering theory and principles as well as their application.

Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism Prevention and Emergency Management, Second Edition teaches how to define homeland security, understand how it changed after 9/11, and explore its relationship with emergency management; recognize the causes of terrorism and what prompts people to engage in terrorist attacks; assess the trade-offs between security and rights, and understand how terrorism exploits the tension between these two priorities; work to prevent terrorist attacks through intelligence gathering, by promoting laws that prohibit terrorism, and by protecting borders and various sectors of society; prepare for a terrorist attack by creating an advisory council, passing ordinances, acquiring monetary resources, and establishing an EOC; effectively respond to a terrorist attack through the many functions involved, including the protection of first responders and the decontamination of the victims; recover from a terrorist attack through both short-term and long-term measures; anticipate the current challenges faced in homeland security; and comprehend the various types of attacks that might take place in the future. The second edition:

  • Covers the four traditional phases of emergency response, with a focus on terrorism prevention and infrastructure protection
  • Includes new content such as recent domestic and international terrorist attacks including the attacks in Paris and Boston
  • Has a strong "practitioner" approach and draws upon a solid foundation of academic literature in the field
  • Discusses the roles and responsibilities of government agencies, non-government organizations, and individual citizens

Introduction to Homeland Security is an excellent book for all scholars, students, and practitioners interested or involved in homeland security and emergency management.

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CHAPTER 1. UNDERSTANDING A NEW GLOBAL PRIORITY: TERRORISM, HOMELAND SECURITY, AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT 1

Introduction 2

1.1 Terrorism Is the New Normal 2

1.1.1 Boston Marathon Bombing 2

1.1.2 San Bernardino Regional Center Shooting 2

1.1.3 Orlando Nightclub Shooting 3

1.1.4 Other Notable Attacks 3

Self-Check 6

1.2 A Growing Threat 6

1.2.1 Reasons to Anticipate More Attacks 7

Self-Check 9

1.3 9/11: A Wake-Up Call 9

Self-Check 11

1.4 The Nature of Homeland Security 11

1.4.1 Definitions of Homeland Security 12

1.4.2 Agreement About Homeland Security 12

Self-Check 16

1.5 Disciplines Involved in Homeland Security and the Emergency Management Profession 16

1.5.1 The Role of Emergency Management 17

1.5.2 Important Terminology 21

Self-Check 22

Summary 23

Assess Your Understanding 24

Applying This Chapter 25

Be a Homeland Security Professional 26

Key Terms 26

References 28

CHAPTER 2. IDENTIFYING TERRORISM: IDEOLOGICALLY MOTIVATED ACTS OF VIOLENCE AND THEIR RELATION TO DISASTERS 31

Introduction 32

2.1 Defining Terrorism 32

Self-Check 34

2.2 Common Characteristics Of Terrorism 34

Self-Check 35

2.3 Types of Terrorism 35

Self-Check 38

2.4 Relation of Terrorism to Other Disasters 38

Self-Check 41

Summary 42

Assess Your Understanding 43 Applying This Chapter 44

Be a Homeland Security Professional 44

Key Terms 45

References 46

CHAPTER 3. RECOGNIZING THE CAUSES OF TERRORISM: DIFFERING PERSPECTIVES AND THE ROLE OF IDEOLOGY 47

Introduction 48

3.1 Frequently Mentioned Causes of Terrorism 48

3.1.1 Historical Grievances 48

3.1.2 US Foreign Policy 49

3.1.3 Poverty 50

Self-Check 51

3.2 Political Causes 5

3.2.1 Politics 52

3.2.2 Political Systems 52

3.2.3 Political Functions 53

3.2.4 Political Structure 54

Self-Check 56

3.3 Cultural and Religious Causes 56

3.3.1 Cultural Dimensions of Terrorism 56

3.3.2 The Role of Religion in Terrorism 57

Self-Check 60

3.4 Ideology 60

3.4.1 The Nature of Ideologies 61

3.4.2 Ideological Dimensions of Terrorism 62

Self-Check 63

Summary 63

Assess Your Understanding 64 Applying This Chapter 65

Be a Homeland Security Professional 65

Key Terms 66

References 68

CHAPTER 4. COMPREHENDING TERRORISTS AND THEIR BEHAVIOR: WHO THEY ARE AND WHAT THEY DO 69

Introduction 70

4.1 Terrorists and Terrorist Organizations 70

4.1.1 Terrorist Classification 73

Self-Check 75

4.2 Personal Characteristics 75

4.2.1 Distinct Differences 76

Self-Check 78

4.3 The Behavior and Tactics of Terrorists 78

4.3.1 Propaganda 78

4.3.2 Recruiting 79

4.3.3 Financing 79

4.3.4 Training 81

4.3.5 False Documents, Travel, and Safe Haven 82

4.3.6 Code Words and Secret Communications 82

4.3.7 Planning 83

4.3.8 Weapons 85

4.3.9 Acts of Civil Disorder or Terrorisms 86

Self-Check 88

Summary 88

Assess Your Understanding 89 Applying This Chapter 90

Be a Homeland Security Professional 91

Key Terms 91

References 93

CHAPTER 5. UNCOVERING THE DYNAMIC NATURE OF TERRORISM: HISTORY OF VIOLENCE AND CHANGE OVER TIME 95

Introduction 96

5.1 The Appearance of Terrorism 96

Self-Check 98

5.2 The Evolution of Terrorism Abroad 98

Self-Check 101

5.3 Terrorism and the United States 102

Self-Check 105

5.4 Terrorism Today 105

Self-Check 109

Summary 110

Assess Your Understanding 111

Applying This Chapter 112

Be a Homeland Security Professional 113

Key Terms 113

References 114

CHAPTER 6. EVALUATING A MAJOR DILEMMA: TERRORISM, THE MEDIA, AND CENSORSHIP 115

Introduction 116

6.1 Changes in the Media Over Time 116

Self-Check 117

6.2 Terrorists and the Media 117

Self-Check 120

6.3 The Media and Terrorism 120

Self-Check 123

6.4 Government and the Media 123

Self-Check 126

6.5 Censorship and Self-Censorships 126

Self-Check 129

Summary 129

Assess Your Understanding 130

Applying This Chapter 131

Be a Homeland Security Professional 132

Key Terms 133

References 134

CHAPTER 7. CONTEMPLATING A QUANDARY:  TERRORISM, SECURITY, AND LIBERTY 135

Introduction 136

7.1 War, Terrorism, and Law 136

Self-Check 138

7.2 Security and Liberty 138

Self-Check 142

7.3 Cases and Considerations 142

Self-Check 148

Summary 148

Assess Your Understanding 149 Applying This Chapter 150

Be a Homeland Security Professional 151

Key Terms 151

References 152

CHAPTER 8. PREVENTING TERRORIST ATTACKS: ROOT CAUSES, LAW, INTELLIGENCE, AND COUNTERTERRORISM 153

Introduction 154

8.1 Addressing Root Causes 154

Self-Check 156

8.2 Policy and Legislation 156

8.2.1 Laws Prior to 9/11 157

8.2.2 Legislation After 9/11 158

Self-Check 160

8.3 Intelligence 161

8.3.1 The Need for Intelligence 161

8.3.2 The Intelligence Cycle 162

8.3.3 Challenges Facing the Intelligence Community 163

8.3.4 Successes 166

Self-Check 167

8.4 Counterterrorism 167

8.4.1 Risky Operations 170

8.4.2 Learning from Other Nations 171

8.4.3 Controversy Regarding Counterterrorism 173

Self-Check 174

Summary 174

Assess Your Understanding 175

Applying This Chapter 176

Be a Homeland Security Professional 176

Key Terms 177

References 179

CHAPTER 9. SECURING THE NATION: BORDER  CONTROL AND SECTOR SAFETY 181

Introduction 182

9.1 Border Control 182

9.1.1 What Is the Border? 182

9.1.2 Our Porous Border 183

9.1.3 Participants Involved in Border Control 185

9.1.4 Measures to Secure Borders 186

Self-Check 188

9.2 Protecting Air Transportation 189

Self-Check 192

9.3 Rail Transportation Security 192

Self-Check 195

9.4 Protection of Sea Ports and Maritime Transportation 195

Self-Check 198

9.5 Protection of Petrochemical Facilities 199

Self-Check 200

Summary 201

Assess Your Understanding 202 Applying This Chapter 203

Be a Homeland Security Professional 203

Key Terms 204

References 206

CHAPTER 10. PROTECTING AGAINST POTENTIAL ATTACKS: THREAT ASSESSMENT, MITIGATION, AND OTHER MEASURES 207

Introduction 208

10.1 Threat Assessment 208

10.1.1 Critical Infrastructure, Key Assets, and Soft Targets 208

10.1.2 Collaboration with Others to Identify Threats 210

10.1.3 Points of Consideration 212

Self-Check 217

10.2 Structural and Nonstructural Mitigation 217

10.2.1 Architectural Design and Construction 218

10.2.2 Zoning and Set-back Regulations 219

10.2.3 Other Protective Measures 220

Self-Check 223

Summary 223

Assess Your Understanding 224 Applying This Chapter 225

Be a Homeland Security Professional 226

Key Terms 227

References 228

CHAPTER 11. PREPARING FOR THE UNTHINKABLE: EFFORTS FOR READINESS 229

Introduction 230

11.1 The Importance and Nature of Preparedness 230

11.1.1 Federal and State Initiatives 231

Self-Check 237

11.2 Foundations of Preparedness 237

11.2.1 Preparedness Councils 238

11.2.2 Ordinances 239

11.2.3 Budgets and Grants 239

11.2.4 Emergency Operations Centers 241

Self-Check 242

11.3 Planning 242

Self-Check 245

11.4 Other Measures 245

11.4.1 Training 245

11.4.2 Exercises 247

11.4.3 Community Education 249

Self-Check 251

Summary 252

Assess Your Understanding 253

Applying This Chapter 254

Be a Homeland Security Professional 255

Key Terms 255

References 258

CHAPTER 12. RESPONDING TO ATTACKS: IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS AND COORDINATION MECHANISMS 259

Introduction 260

12.1 Behavior and Major Priorities 260

12.1.1 Initial Investigation and Apprehension 261

12.1.2 Safety and Security 263

12.1.3 Search and Rescue 266

12.1.4 Medical Care and Triage 266

12.1.5 Decontamination 267

12.1.6 Closing the Investigation 268

Self-Check 270

12.2 Other Crucial Functions 270

12.2.1 Warning, Intelligence, and Public Information 271

12.2.2 Evacuation and Sheltering 273

Self-Check 274

12.3 Coordination Mechanisms 275

12.3.1 The Incident Command System 275

12.3.2 Strengths and Weakness of ICS 277

12.3.3 Utilization of Emergency Operations Centers 278

12.3.4 EOC Management 280

Self-Check 281

Summary 281

Assess Your Understanding 282

Applying This Chapter 283

Be a Homeland Security Professional 283

Key Terms 284

References 286

CHAPTER 13. RECOVERING FROM IMPACTS: SHORT- AND LONG-TERM MEASURES 287

Introduction 288

13.1 Initial Recovery Steps 288

13.1.1 Damage Assessment 288

13.1.2 Damage Assessment Concerns and Procedures 289

13.1.3 Declaring a Disaster and Seeking Help 290

Self-Check 292

13.2 Key Recovery Functions 292

13.2.1 Mass Fatality Management 292

13.2.2 Debris Management 294

13.2.3 Emotional Issues 296

Self-Check 297

13.3 The Importance of Disaster Assistance 298

13.3.1 Volunteer and Donation Management 298

13.3.2 Individual and Public Assistance 300

13.3.3 Novel Approaches 302

Self-Check 304

Summary 304

Assess Your Understanding 305

Applying This Chapter 306

Be a Homeland Security Professional 307

Key Terms 307

References 310

CHAPTER 14. ASSESSING SIGNIFICANT THREATS: WMD AND CYBERTERRORISM  311

Introduction 312

14.1 The Future of Terrorism and WMD 312

Self-Check 317

14.2 Radiological Weapons 317

Self-Check 321

14.3 Nuclear Weapons 321

Self-Check 325

14.4 Biological Weapons 325

Self-Check 329

14.5 Chemical Weapons 330

Self-Check 333

14.6 Cyberterrorism 333

Self-Check 337

Summary 337

Assess Your Understanding 338

Applying This Chapter 339

Be a Homeland Security Professional 339

Key Terms 340

References 342

CHAPTER 15. LOOKING TOWARD THE  FUTURE:  CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 343

Introduction 344

15.1 The Lessons of this Book 344

Self-Check 348

15.2 Accountability in Homeland Security 348

Self-Check 351

15.3 Clarification of Homeland Security Policy 351

Self-Check 353

15.4 Research Needs and Recommendations for the Future 354

15.4.1 Direction for Researchers 354

15.4.2 Guidance for Practitioners 356

Self-Check 358

Summary 359

Assess Your Understanding 360

Applying This Chapter 361

Be a Homeland Security Professional 361

Key Terms 362

References 362

Glossary 363

Index 377