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Introduction to IP Address Management



Introduction to IP Address Management

Timothy Rooney

ISBN: 978-1-118-07380-3 February 2011 Wiley-IEEE Press 278 Pages

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A step-by-step guide to managing critical technologies of today's converged services IP networks

Effective IP Address Management (IPAM) has become crucial to maintaining high-performing IP services such as data, video, and voice over IP. This book provides a concise introduction to the three core IPAM networking technologies—IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), and Domain Name System (DNS)—as well as IPAM practice and techniques needed to manage them cohesively.

The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, including a discussion of protocol layering, addressing, and routing. After a review of the IPAM technologies, the book introduces the major components, motivation, benefits, and basic approaches of IPAM. Emphasizing the necessity of a disciplined "network management" approach to IPAM, the subsequent chapters enable you to:

  • Understand IPAM practices, including managing your IP address inventory and tracking of address transactions (such as allocation and splitting address space, discovering network occupancy, and managing faults and performance)

  • Weigh the costs and justifications for properly implementing an IPAM strategy

  • Use various approaches to automating IPAM functions through workflow

  • Learn about IPv4-IPv6 co-existence technologies and approaches

  • Assess security issues with DHCP network access control approaches and DNS vulnerabilities and mitigation including DNSSEC

  • Evaluate the business case for IPAM, which includes derivation of the business case cost basis, identification of savings when using an IP address management system, associated costs, and finally net results

Introduction to IP Address Management concludes with a business case example, providing a real-world financial perspective of the costs and benefits of implementing an IP address management solution. No other book covers all these subjects cohesively from a network management perspective, which makes this volume imperative for manager-level networking professionals who need a broad understanding of both the technical and business aspects of IPAM. In addition, technologists interested in IP networking and address management will find this book valuable.

To obtain a free copy of the IPAM Configuration Guide please send an email to:

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xiii

1 IP Networking Overview 1

IP Networking 101 1

IP Networking 102 9

Highlights of Internet Protocol History 21

2 Internet Protocol Addressing 25

The IP Header 25

Binary Review 25

IP Addressing 26

Classless Addressing 33

Special Use IPv4 Addresses 34

IP Version 6 (IPv6) 35

IPv6 Address Allocations 39

IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration 41

Required Host IPv6 Addresses 45

Regional Internet Registries 46

Key IP Addressing Management Challenges 49

3 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 53

Introduction 53

DHCP Overview 54

DHCP for IPv6 (DHCPv6) 59

DHCP Server Deployment Considerations 64

Other Means of Dynamic Address Assignment 67

Key DHCP Management Challenges 67

4 The Domain Name System (DNS) 69

DNS Overview—Domains and Resolution 69

Name Resolution 71

Zones and Domains 74

Resolver Configuration 79

DNS Update 80

Resource Records 80

DNS Server Deployment Considerations 82

Key DNS Management Challenges 84

5 IP Address Management Overview 85

Key Elements of IP Address Management 85

Applications of Address Management Technologies 87

Potential Impacts of Inadequate IP Address Management 95

IP Address Management as Network Management 95

IP Address Management Business Benefits 96

Common Approaches and IPAM Evolution 99

6 IP Address Management Practices 101

FCAPS Summary 101

Common IP Management Tasks 102

Configuration Management 102

Fault Management 122

Accounting Management 126

Performance Management 130

Security Management 132

Disaster Recovery/Business Continuity 133

ITIL® Process Mappings 134

7 IP Address Management Workflow 139

What Is Workflow? 140

Workflow Realization 144

Workflow Benefits 145

Workflow Scenarios 147

Summary 153

8 IPv6 Deployment and IPv4 Co-Existence 155

Why Implement IPv6? 156

Dual Stack Approach 157

Tunneling Approaches 160

Translation Approaches 164

9 Security Considerations 169

DHCP and Network Access Security 169

Network Access Control (NAC) 170

Alternative Access Control Approaches 175

Securing DHCP Servers 179

DNS Vulnerabilities 182

Mitigation Approaches 186

DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) 187

10 IP Address Management Business Case 197

Business Case Overview 198

Business Case Cost Basis 198

Savings with IPAM Deployment 221

Business Case Expenses 222

Netting It Out: Business Case Results 224

Conclusion 225

Appendix A IPv4 DHCP Options 227

Appendix B DHCPv6 Options 241

Appendix C DNS Resource Record Summary 249

Glossary 253

Bibliography 255

Index 261