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Introduction to Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions

Introduction to Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions

Donghang Yan, Haibo Wang, Baoxun Du

ISBN: 978-0-470-82595-2

Sep 2010

264 pages



It is well known that most important electronic devices use Schottky junctions and heterojunctions. Unfortunately there is not an advanced book introducing heterojunctions systematically. Introduction to Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions fills the gap. In this book, the authors provide a comprehensive discussion and systematic introduction on the state-of-the-art technologies as well as application of organic semiconductor heterojunctions.
  • First book to systematically introduce organic heterojunctions
  • Arms readers with theoretical, experimental and applied aspects of organic heterojunctions
  • The Chinese edition of the book is part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Distinguished Young Scholar Scientific Book Series

Introduction to Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions is an ideal and valued reference for researchers and graduate students focusing on organic thin film devices like organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Instructors can use the book as a supplementary text for a semiconductor physics or organic electronics course, giving students a better feel for the application of organic thin film devices.



About the Authors.

1 Organic Heterostructure in Electronic Devices.

1.1 Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

1.2 Ambipolar Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

1.3 Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

1.4 Parameters in Thin-Film Transistors.


2 Weak Epitaxy Growth of Organic Semiconductor Thin Film.

2.1 Fabrication of Organic Ultrathin Film by Vacuum Deposition.

2.1.1 Organic Thin Film of Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

2.1.2 Organic Thin Film of Vapor Deposition.

2.1.3 Oriented Organic Molecular Thin Film.

2.1.4 Organic Molecular Thin Film of Vapor Deposition Controlled by Kinetics and Thermodynamics.

2.2 Vapor-Deposited Thin Film of Rod-Like and Banana-Shaped Organic Molecules.

2.2.1 Vapor-Deposited Thin Film of Pentacene.

2.2.2 Vapor-Deposited Thin Film of a-Hexathiophene.

2.2.3 Vapor-Deposited Thin Film of Banana-Shaped Organic Molecule.

2.2.4 Vapor-Deposited Thin Film of Para-Sexiphenyl.

2.3 Heteroepitaxy of Disk-Like Organic Molecule on Para-Sexiphenyl Ultrathin Film by Vapor Deposition.

2.3.1 p-6P and Planar Metal Phthalocyanines.

2.3.2 p-6P and Nonplanar Metal Phthalocyanine.

2.3.3 Heteroepitaxy Growth of Perylene Diimide Derivatives on p-6P.

2.4 Evolution of Film Growth 2,5-Bis (4-Biphenylyl) Bithiophene (BP2T).

2.4.1 Growth Behavior of BP2T Thin Films.

2.4.2 Heteroepitaxy Growth of ZnPc on BP2T Thin Films.

2.5 Heteroepitaxy Between Disk-Like Molecules.

2.5.1 Stability of H2Pc Film Fabricated by WEG.

2.5.2 WEG of H2Pc Film by Kinetic Control.

2.5.3 Heteroepitaxy Growth of F16CuPc on H2Pc Thin Film.

2.6 Perspectives.

2.6.1 Nucleation Process of Organic Ultrathin Film.

2.6.2 Contacted and Oriented Process of the Nucleus on the Substrate.

2.6.3 Liquid-Crystal-Like Behavior and Flexible Boundary of Organic Ultrathin Film.

2.6.4 Extent of Liquid-Crystal-Like Behavior of Organic Ultrathin Film.

2.6.5 Weak Epitaxy Growth of Organic Ultrathin Film.


3 Interfacial Electronic Structure in Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions.

3.1 Ambipolar Organic Transistors and Organic Heterostructures.

3.2 CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunction Effect.

3.2.1 Normally On Operation Mode of CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunction Transistors.

3.2.2 Experiment of Planar Heterojunction Diode.

3.2.3 Carrier Accumulation at CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunction Interface.

3.2.4 CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunction Diodes with Reverse Rectifying Characteristics.

3.2.5 Charge Accumulation Thickness in CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunction Films.

3.2.6 Direct Measurement of CuPc/F16CuPc Interfacial Electronic Structure by UPS.

3.2.7 Difference in UPS Measurement Results.

3.3 Anderson Rule and Ideal Interfacial Electronic Structure of CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunction.

3.3.1 Anderson Affinity Rule.

3.3.2 Ideal Interfacial Electronic Structure for the CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunction.

3.4 Organic and Inorganic Semiconductor Heterojunction.

3.4.1 Comparison of the Organic Accumulation Heterojunction and Inorganic p-n Homojunction.

3.4.2 Categories of Semiconductor Heterojunctions.

3.5 BP2T/F16CuPc Heterojunction.

3.5.1 Heterojunction Effect of BP2T/F16CuPc.

3.5.2 Energy Band Diagram of BP2T/F16CuPc Heterojunction.

3.5.3 BP2T/F16CuPc Heterojunction Diodes.

3.6 ZnPc/C60 Heterojunction.

3.6.1 ZnPc/C60 Heterojunction Transistors.

3.6.2 Energy Band Profile of ZnPc and C60 Heterojunction.

3.6.3 ZnPc and C60 Heterojunction Diode.

3.7 n-n Isotype Organic Heterojunction.

3.7.1 Interfacial Electronic Structure Observed by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy.

3.7.2 Normally On Heterojunction Transistors.

3.7.3 F16CuPc/SnCl2Pc Heterojunction Diode.

3.8 p-p Isotype Organic Heterojunction.

3.8.1 Ambipolar Heterojunction Field-Effect Transistors and CMOS Diode.

3.8.2 Interfacial Electronic Structure of Ph3/VOPc Heterojunction.

3.8.3 Heterojunction Field-Effect Transistors with Various Thicknesses.

3.9 Perspectives.

3.9.1 Characterization of Electronic Structure of Organic Semiconductors.

3.9.2 Measurement and Theoretic Prediction of Fundamental Parameters of Organic Semiconductors.

3.9.3 Application of Organic Semiconductors.

3.9.4 Choice and Optimization of the System of Organic Semiconductor Heterojunction.

3.9.5 Formation Process of Organic Semiconductor Heterojunction.


4 Charge Transport in Organic Heterojunctions.

4.1 Conductance of CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunction Films.

4.1.1 Single-Crystal-Like CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunctions and Their Electronic Properties.

4.1.2 Hall Effect in CuPc/F16CuPc Heterojunction Films.

4.1.3 Temperature Dependence of Conductance of CuPc/F16CuPc WEG Films.

4.1.4 Charge Transport Model in CuPc/F16CuPc WEG Films.

4.2 Organic Heterojunction Effect in WEG Films.

4.3 Charge Transport in BP2T/F16CuPc Bipolar Heterojunction Transistors.

4.3.1 BP2T/F16CuPc Heterojunction MOS Diode.

4.3.2 Simulating Bipolar Transport Using Two Single-Layer Transistors.

4.3.3 Model of Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors.

4.4 Perspectives.

4.4.1 Organic Single-Crystal Devices.

4.4.2 Hetero-Epitaxy Growth of Molecules on Organic Single-Crystal.

4.4.3 Polycrystalline Films and Devices Taking Delocalized Carriers.

4.4.4 Simplex Materials with Bipolar Transport Characteristics.


5 Organic Heterojunction Applications in Electronic Devices.

5.1 Organic Heterojunction Film as a Device Active Layer.

5.1.1 Organic Field Effect Transistor.

5.1.2 Organic Solar Cells.

5.2 Improvement in Contact of Organic Devices.

5.2.1 Highly Conductive Material to Improve Transistor Contact.

5.2.2 Highly Conductive Heterojunction to Improve Contact in Transistor.

5.2.3 Improvement in Contact of Organic Solar Cell.

5.3 Heterojunction Film as Connecting Unit in Tandem Devices.

5.3.1 Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Diode.

5.3.2 Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cell.

5.4 VOPc Thin Film Transistor Suitable for Flat Panel Display.

5.4.1 Static Behavior of VOPc TFTs.

5.4.2 Transient Behavior of VOPc TFTs.

5.4.3 Electrical Properties in VOPc MIS Diodes.

5.4.4 Static and Transient Behavior of VOPc TFTs with Organic Heterojunction Buffer Layer.

5.4.5 Stability of VOPc TFTs.

5.5 OTFT Active Matrix Display.

5.5.1 OTFT-LCD.

5.5.2 OTFT-OLED.

5.6 Perspectives.

5.6.1 Organic Quantum Well Crystal Emission.

5.6.2 Organic Photovoltaic Cell.

5.6.3 Organic Sensor.

5.6.4 Organic Thin Film Transistor.


6 Organic Heterojunction Semiconductors.

6.1 P3HT:C60 Blending System.

6.1.1 High Efficiency Organic Solar Cell.

6.1.2 Characteristics of the P3HT/C60 Heterojunction.

6.1.3 Accumulation-Type Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

6.1.4 Heterojunction Effect Affects Conductivity Character.

6.1.5 Doping Effect Affects Conductivity Character.

6.2 Ambipolar Transport in Heterotype Interpenetrating Network Heterostructure.

6.2.1 Solution-Processed Ambipolar Bulk Heterojunction Transistors.

6.2.2 Vacuum Vapor Deposition Ambipolar Bulk Heterojunction Transistors.

6.3 Organic Isotype Heterojunction Blends.

6.3.1 CuPc and CoPc Sandwich Transistors.

6.3.2 CuPc and CoPc Blends.

6.3.3 CuPc and NiPc Blends.

6.4 Organic Semiconductor Superlattice.

6.4.1 Development Course of Organic Superlattice and Organic Quantum Well.

6.4.2 Disk-Like Molecule Phthalocyanine Organic Superlattice.

6.5 Perspectives.

6.5.1 Interpenetrating Networks of Multicomponent System.

6.5.2 Organic Quantum Well and Organic Superlattice.

6.5.3 Doping Effect.