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Introduction to Process Safety for Undergraduates and Engineers

Introduction to Process Safety for Undergraduates and Engineers

CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

ISBN: 978-1-119-24126-3

Jun 2016

304 pages

$79.99

Description

  • Familiarizes the student or an engineer new to process safety with the concept of process safety management
  • Serves as a comprehensive reference for Process Safety topics for student chemical engineers and newly graduate engineers
  • Acts as a reference material for either a stand-alone process safety course or as supplemental materials for existing curricula
  • Includes the evaluation of SACHE courses for application of process safety principles throughout the standard Ch.E. curricula in addition to, or as an alternative to, adding a new specific process safety course
  • Gives examples of process safety in design

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LIST OF TABLES xv

LIST OF FIGURES xvii

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxi

GLOSSARY xxv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxxiii

PREFACE xxxv

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Purpose of this Handbook 1

1.2 Target Audience 1

1.3 Process Safety – What Is It? 1

1.4 Organization of the Book 3

1.5 References 4

2. Process Safety Basics 5

2.1 Risk Based Process Safety 5

Pillar: Commit to Process Safety 12

2.2 Process Safety Culture 12

2.3 Compliance with Standards 15

2.4 Process Safety Competency 17

2.5 Workforce Involvement 18

2.6 Stakeholder Outreach 19

Pillar: Understand Hazards and Risks 20

2.7 Process Knowledge Management 20

2.8 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis 22

Pillar: Manage Risk 25

2.9 Operating Procedures 25

2.10 Safe Work Practices 26

2.11 Asset Integrity and Reliability 28

2.12 Contractor Management 30

2.13 Training And Performance Assurance 32

2.14 Management of Change 33

2.15 Operational Readiness 35

2.16 Conduct of Operations 37

2.17 Emergency Management 38

Pillar: Learn from Experience 42

2.18 Incident Investigation 42

2.19 Measurement and Metrics 45

2.20 Auditing 46

2.21 Management Review and Continuous Improvement 48

2.22 Summary 49

2.23 References 50

3. The Need for Process Safety 53

3.1 Process Safety Culture: BP Refinery Explosion, Texas City, 2005 58

3.1.1 Summary 58

3.1.2 Detailed Description 58

3.1.3 Causes 59

3.1.4 Key Lessons 61

3.1.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 63

3.2 Asset Integrity and Reliability: ARCO Channelview, Texas Explosion, 1990 64

3.2.1 Summary 64

3.2.2 Detailed Description 64

3.2.3 Causes 65

3.2.4 Key Lessons 65

3.2.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 65

3.3 Process Safety Culture: NASA Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster, 2003 66

3.3.1 Summary 66

3.3.2 Detailed Description 66

3.3.3 Causes 68

3.3.4 Key Lessons 69

3.3.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 70

3.4 Process Knowledge Management: Concept Sciences Explosion, Hanover Township PA, 1999 70

3.4.1 Summary 70

3.4.2 Detailed Description 70

3.4.3 Cause 72

3.4.4 Key Lessons 73

3.4.5 References and links to Investigation Reports 73

3.5 Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment: Esso Longford Gas Plant Explosion, 1998 73

3.5.1 Summary 73

3.5.2 Detailed Description 74

3.5.3 Cause 76

3.5.4 Key Lessons 76

3.5.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 77

3.6 Operating Procedures: Port Neal, IA, Ammonium Nitrate Explosion, 1994 77

3.6.1 Summary 77

3.6.2 Detailed Description 77

3.6.3 Causes 79

3.6.4 Key Lessons 80

3.6.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 80

3.7 Safe Work Practices: Piper Alpha, North Sea, UK, 1988 80

3.7.1 Summary 80

3.7.2 Detailed Description 81

3.7.3 Causes 83

3.7.4 Key Lessons 84

3.7.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 85

3.8 Contractor Management: Partridge Raleigh Oilfield Explosion, Raleigh, MS, 2006 85

3.8.1 Summary 85

3.8.2 Detailed Description 85

3.8.3 Cause 86

3.8.4 Key Lessons 86

3.8.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 88

3.9 Asset Integrity and Reliability: Explosion at Texaco Oil Refinery, Milford Haven, UK, 1994 88

3.9.1 Summary 88

3.9.2 Detailed Description 88

3.9.3 Causes 89

3.9.4 Key Lessons 90

3.9.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 91

3.10 Conduct of Operations: Formosa Plastics VCM Explosion, Illiopolis, IL, 2004 91

3.10.1 Summary 91

3.10.2 Detailed Description 91

3.10.3 Causes 94

3.10.4 Key Lessons 94

3.10.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 95

3.11 Management of Change: Flixborough Explosion, UK, 1974 95

3.11.1 Summary 95

3.11.2 Detailed Description 95

3.11.3 Cause 98

3.11.4 Key Lessons 98

3.11.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 99

3.12 Emergency Management: Sandoz Warehouse Fire, Switzerland, 1986 99

3.12.1 Summary 99

3.12.2 Key Lessons 101

3.12.3 References and links to investigation reports 102

3.13 Conduct of Operations: Exxon Valdez, Alaska, 1989 102

3.13.1 Summary 102

3.13.2 Detailed Description 102

3.13.3 Causes 105

3.13.4 Key Lessons 105

3.13.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 106

3.14 Compliance with Standards: Mexico City, PEMEX LPG Terminal, 1984 106

3.14.1 Summary 106

3.14.2 Detailed Description 106

3.14.3 Causes 109

3.14.4 Key Lessons 109

3.14.5 References and Links to Investigation Reports 109

3.15 Process Safety Culture: Methyl Isocyanate Release, Bhopal, India, 1984 110

3.15.1 Summary 110

3.15.2 Detailed Description 110

3.15.3 Key Lessons 111

3.15.4 References and Links to Investigation Reports 112

3.16 Failure to Learn, BP Macondo Well Blowout, Gulf of Mexico, 2010 113

3.16.1 Summary 113

3.16.2 Detailed Description 113

3.16.3 Key Lessons 118

3.16.4 References and Links to Investigation Reports 119

3.17 Summary 119

3.18 References 120

4. Process Safety for Engineering Disciplines 121

4.1 Introduction 121

4.2 Process Knowledge Management 121

4.3 Compliance with Standards 124

4.4 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis, Management Of Change 126

Management of Organizational Change 127

4.5 Asset Integrity and Reliability 128

4.6 Safe Work Practices 129

4.7 Incident Investigation 130

4.8 Resources for Further Learning 130

4.8 Summary 132

4.9 References 132

5. Process Safety in Design 133

5.1 Process Safety Design Strategies 133

5.2 General Unit Operations and Their Failure Modes 134

5.2.1 Pumps, Compressors, Fans 134

5.2.2 Heat Exchange Equipment 141

5.2.3 Mass Transfer; Distillation, Leaching and Extraction, Absorption 146

5.2.4 Mechanical Separation / Solid-Fluid Separation 152

5.2.5 Reactors and Reactive Hazards 158

5.2.6 Fired Equipment 163

5.2.7 Storage 167

5.3 Petroleum Processing 179

5.3.1 General Process Safety Hazards in a Refinery 180

5.3.2 Crude Handling and Separation 182

5.3.3 Light Hydrocarbon Handling and Separation 183

5.3.4 Hydrotreating 184

5.3.5 Catalytic Cracking 185

5.3.6 Reforming 187

5.3.7 Alkylation 188

5.3.8 Coking 190

5.4 Transient Operating States 192

5.4.1 Overview 192

5.4.2 Example Process Safety Incidents 192

5.4.3 Design Considerations 194

5.5 References 194

6. Course Material 199

6.1 Introduction 199

6.2 Inherently Safer Design 199

6.3 Process Safety Management and Conservation of Life 199

6.4 Process Safety Overview and Safety in the Chemical Process Industries 200

6.5 Process Hazards 201

6.5.1 Chemical Reactivity Hazards 201

6.5.2 Fires and Explosions 202

6.5.3 Other Hazards 203

6.6 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis 203

6.7 Emergency Relief Systems 205

6.8 Case Histories 206

6.8.1 Runaway Reactions 206

6.8.2 Other Case Histories 207

6.9 Other Modules 209

6.10 Summary 209

6.11 References 209

7. Process Safety in the Workplace 211

7.1 What to Expect 211

7.1.1 Formal Training 211

7.1.2 Interface with Operators, Craftsmen 214

7.2 New Skills 215

7.2.1 Non-Technical 215

7.2.2 Technical 216

7.3 Safety Culture 217

7.4 Conduct of Operations 218

7.4.1 Operational Discipline 218

7.4.2 Engineering Discipline 230

7.4.3 Management Discipline 232

7.4.4 Other Conduct of Operations Topics for the New Engineer 237

7.5 Summary 238

7.6 References 238

APPENDIX A – EXAMPLE RAGAGEP LIST 241

APPENDIX B – LIST OF CSB VIDEOS 245

APPENDIX C – REACTIVE CHEMICALS CHECKLIST 249

C.1 Chemical Reaction Hazard Identification 249

C.2 Reaction Process Design Considerations 252

C.3 Resources and Publications 254

APPENDIX D – LIST OF SACHE COURSES 257

APPENDIX E – Reactivity Hazard Evaluation Tools 259

E.1 Screening Table and Flowchart 259

E.2 Reference 262

INDEX 263