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Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Control, Applications, 3rd Edition

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Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Control, Applications, 3rd Edition

Saeed B. Niku

ISBN: 978-1-119-52762-6 March 2020 475 Pages

Hardcover
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Description

The revised text to the analysis, control, and applications of robotics 

The revised and updated third edition of Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Control, Applications, offers a guide to the fundamentals of robotics, robot components and subsystems and applications. The author—a noted expert on the topic—covers the mechanics and kinematics of serial and parallel robots, both with the Denavit-Hartenberg approach as well as screw-based mechanics. In addition, the text contains information on microprocessor applications, control systems, vision systems, sensors, and actuators.  

Introduction to Robotics gives engineering students and practicing engineers the information needed to design a robot, to integrate a robot in appropriate applications, or to analyze a robot. The updated third edition contains many new subjects and the content has been streamlined throughout the text. The new edition includes two completely new chapters on screw-based mechanics and parallel robots. The book is filled with many new illustrative examples and includes homework problems designed to enhance learning. This important text: 

  • Offers a revised and updated guide to the fundamental of robotics  
  • Contains information on robot components, robot characteristics, robot languages, and robotic applications 
  • Covers the kinematics of serial robots with Denavit-Hartenberg methodology and screw-based mechanics 
  • Includes the fundamentals of control engineering, including analysis and design tools 
  • Discusses kinematics of parallel robots 

Written for students of engineering as well as practicing engineers, Introduction to Robotics, Third Edition reviews the basics of robotics, robot components and subsystems, applications, and has been revised to include the most recent developments in the field. 

 

Chapter One Fundamentals

1.1. Introduction

1.2. What is a Robot

1.3. Classification of Robots

1.4. What is Robotics

1.5. History of Robotics

1.6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots

1.7. Robot Components

1.8. Robot Degrees of Freedom

1.9. Robot Joints

1.10. Robot Coordinates

1.11. Robot Reference Frames

1.12. Programming Modes

1.13. Robot Characteristics

1.14. Robot Workspace

1.15. Robot Languages

1.16. Robot Applications

1.17. Other Robots and Applications

1.18. Collaborative Robots

1.19. Social Issues

Summary

References

Problems

Chapter Two Kinematics of Serial robots: Position Analysis

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Robots as Mechanisms

2.3. Conventions

2.4. Matrix Representation

2.4.1. Representation of a Point in Space

2.4.2. Representation of a Vector in Space

2.4.3. Representation of a Frame at the Origin of a Fixed Reference Frame

2.4.4. Representation of a Frame Relative to a Fixed Reference Frame

2.4.5. Representation of a Rigid Body

2.5. Homogeneous Transformation Matrices

2.6. Representation of Transformations

2.6.1. Representation of a Pure Translation

2.6.2. Representation of a Pure Rotation about an Axis

2.6.3. Representation of Combined Transformations

2.6.4. Transformations Relative to the Rotating Frame

2.6.5. Mixed Transformations Relative to Rotating and Reference Frames

2.7. Inverse of Transformation Matrices

2.8. Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots

2.9. Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position

2.9.1 Cartesian (Gantry, Rectangular) Coordinates

2.9.2. Cylindrical Coordinates

2.9.3. Spherical Coordinates

2.9.4. Articulated Coordinates

2.10. Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Orientation

2.10.1. Roll, Pitch, Yaw (RPY) Angles

2.10.2. Euler Angles

2.10.3. Articulated Joints

2.11. Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position and Orientation

2.12. Denavit-Hartenberg Representation of Forward Kinematic Equations of Robots

2.13. The Inverse Kinematic Solution of Robots

2.13.1. General Solution for Articulated Robot Arms

2.14. Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots

2.15 Dual-Arm Cooperating Robots

2.16. Degeneracy and Dexterity

2.16.1. Degeneracy

2.16.2. Dexterity

2.17. The Fundamental Problem with the Denavit-Hartenberg Representation

2.18. Design Projects

Summary

References

Problems

Chapter Three Robot Kinematics with Screw-Based Mechanics

3.1. Introduction

3.2. What is a Screw

3.3. Rotation about a Screw Axis

3.4. Homogenous Transformations about a General Screw Axis

3.5. Successive Screw-based transformations

3.6. Forward and Inverse Position Analysis of an Articulated Robot

3.7. Design Projects

Summary

Additional Reading

Problems

Chapter Four Kinematics Analysis of Parallel Robots

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Physical Characteristics of Parallel Robots

4.3. Denavit-Hartenberg Approach versus Direct Kinematic Approach

4.4. Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Planar Parallel Robots

4.4.1. Kinematic Analysis of a 3-RPR Planar Parallel Robot

4.4.2. Kinematic Analysis of a 3-RRR Planar Parallel Robot

4.5. Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Spatial Parallel Robots

4.5.1: Kinematic Analysis of a Generic 6-6 Stewart-Gough Platform

4.5.2: Kinematic Analysis of a Generic 6-3 Stewart-Gough Platform

4.5.3: Kinematic Analysis of a 3-axis RSS-type Parallel Robot

4.5.4: Kinematic Analysis of a 4-axis RSS-type Parallel Robot

4.5.5: Kinematic Analysis of a 3-axis PSS-type Parallel Robot

4.6. Other Parallel Robot Configurations

4.7. Design Projects

Summary

References

Problems

Chapter Five Differential Motions and Velocities

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Differential Relationships

5.3. Jacobian

5.4. Differential versus Large-Scale Motions

5.5. Differential Motions of a Frame versus a Robot

5.6 Differential Motions of a Frame

5.6.1. Differential Translations

5.6.2. Differential Rotations about Reference Axes

5.6.3. Differential Rotation about a General Axis q

5.6.4. Differential Transformations of a Frame

5.7. Interpretation of the Differential Change

5.8. Differential Changes between Frames

5.9. Differential Motions of a Robot and its Hand Frame

5.10. Calculation of the Jacobian

5.11. How to Relate the Jacobian and the Differential Operator

5.12. Inverse Jacobian

5.13 Calculation of Jacobian with Screw-Based Mechanics

5.14. Inverse Jacobian for Screw-Based Method

5.15 Calculation of Jacobians of Parallel Robots

5.15.1. Jacobian of a Planar 3-RRR Parallel Robot

5.15.2. Jacobian of a Generic 6-6 Stewart-Gough Parallel Robot

5.16. Design Projects

Summary

References

Problems

Chapter Six Dynamic and Force Analysis

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Lagrangian Mechanics: A Short Overview

6.3. Effective Moments of Inertia

6.4. Dynamic Equations for Multiple-DOF Robots

6.4.1: Kinetic Energy

6.4.2: Potential Energy

6.4.3: The Lagrangian

6.4.4: Robot’s Equations of Motion

6.5. Static Force Analysis of Robots

6.6. Transformation of Forces and Moments between Coordinate Frames

6.7. Design Project

Summary

References

Problems

Chapter Seven Trajectory Planning

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Path versus. Trajectory

7.3. Joint-Space versus. Cartesian-Space Descriptions

7.4. Basics of Trajectory Planning

7.5. Joint-Space Trajectory Planning

7.5.1. Third-order Polynomial Trajectory Planning

7.5.2. Fifth-order Polynomial Trajectory Planning

7.5.3. Linear Segments with Parabolic Blends

7.5.4. Linear Segments with Parabolic Blends and Via Points

7.5.5. Higher-order Trajectories

7.5.6. Other Trajectories

7.6. Cartesian-Space Trajectories

7.7. Continuous Trajectory Recording

7.8. Design Project

Summary

References

Problems

Chapter Eight Motion Control Systems

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Basic Components and Terminology

8.3. Block Diagrams

8.4. System Dynamics

8.5. Laplace Transform

8.6. Inverse Laplace Transform

8.6.1. Partial Fraction Expansion when F(s) involves only distinct poles

8.6.2. Partial Fraction Expansion when F(s) involves repeated poles

8.6.3. Partial Fraction Expansion when F(s) involves complex conjugate poles

8.7. Transfer Function

8.8. Block Diagram Algebra

8.9. Characteristics of First-Order Transfer Functions

8.10. Characteristics of Second-Order Transfer Functions

8.11. Characteristic Equation: Pole/Zero Mapping

8.12. Steady-State Error

8.13. Root Locus Method

8.14. Proportional Controllers

8.15. Proportional-plus-Integral Controllers

8.16. Proportional-plus-Derivative Controllers

8.17. Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller (PID)

8.18. Lead and Lag Compensators

8.19. Bode Diagram and Frequency Domain Analysis

8.20. Open-Loop versus Closed-Loop Applications

8.21. Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output Systems

8.22. State–Space Control Methodology

8.23. Digital Control

8.24. Non-Linear Control Systems

8.25. Electro-Mechanical Systems Dynamics: Robot Actuation and Control

8.26. Design Projects

Summary

References

Problems

Chapter Nine Actuators and Drive Systems

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Characteristics of Actuating Systems

9.2.1. Nominal Characteristics

9.2.2. Stiffness versus Compliance

9.2.3. Use of Reduction Gears

9.3. Comparison of Actuating Systems

9.4. Hydraulic Actuators

9.5. Pneumatic Devices

9.6. Electric Motors

9.6.1. Fundamental Differences between AC and DC-Type Motors

9.6.2. DC Motors

9.6.3. AC Motors

9.6.4. Brushless DC motors

9.6.5. Direct Drive Electric Motors

9.6.6. Servomotors

9.6.7. Stepper Motors

9.7. Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors

9.7.1. Pulse Width Modulation

9.7.2. Direction Control of DC Motors with an H-Bridge

9.8. Magnetostrictive Actuators

9.9. Shape-Memory Type Metals

9.10. Electroactive Polymer Actuators (EAP)

9.11. Speed Reduction

9.12. Other Systems

9.13. Design Projects

Summary

References

Problems

Chapter Ten Sensors

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Sensor Characteristics

10.3. Sensor Utilization

10.4. Position Sensors

10.4.1. Potentiometers

10.4.2. Encoders

10.4.3. Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)

10.4.4. Resolvers

10.4.5. Linear Magnetostrictive Displacement Transducers

10.4.6. Hall-effect Sensors

10.4.7. Global Positioning System (GPS)

10.4.8. Other Devices

10.5. Velocity Sensors

10.5.1. Encoders

10.5.2. Tachometers

10.5.3. Differentiation of Position Signal

10.6. Acceleration Sensors

10.7. Force and Pressure Sensors

10.7.1. Piezoelectric

10.7.2. Force Sensing Resistor

10.7.3. Strain Gauge

10.7.4. Anti-static Foam

10.8. Torque Sensors

10.9. Microswitches

10.10. Visible Light and Infrared Sensors

10.11. Touch and Tactile Sensors

10.12. Proximity Sensors

10.12.1. Magnetic Proximity Sensors

10.12.2. Optical Proximity Sensors

10.12.3. Ultrasonic Proximity Sensors

10.12.4. Inductive Proximity Sensors

10.12.5. Capacitive Proximity Sensors

10.12.6. Eddy Current Proximity Sensors

10.13. Range-finders

10.13.1. Ultrasonic Range Finders

10.13.2. Light Based Range Finders

10.14. Sniff Sensors

10.15. Vision Systems

10.16. Voice Recognition Devices

10.17. Voice Synthesizers

10.18. Remote Center Compliance (RCC) Device

10.19. Design Project

Summary

References

Chapter Eleven Image Processing and Analysis with Vision Systems

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Basic Concepts

11.2.1. Image Processing versus Image Analysis

11.2.2. Two- and Three-Dimensional Image Types

11.2.3. The Nature of an Image

11.2.4. Acquisition of Images

11.2.5. Digital Images

11.2.6. Frequency Domain versus Spatial Domain

11.3. Fourier Transform and Frequency Content of a Signal

11.4. Frequency Content of an Image; Noise, Edges

11.5. Resolution and Quantization

11.6. Sampling Theorem

11.7. Image-Processing Techniques

11.8. Histogram of Images

11.9. Thresholding

11.10. Spatial Domain Operations: Convolution Mask

11.11. Connectivity

11.12. Noise Reduction

11.12.1. Neighborhood Averaging with Convolution Masks

11.12.2. Image Averaging

11.12.3. Frequency Domain

11.12.4. Median Filters

11.13. Edge Detection

11.14. Sharpening an Image

11.15. Hough Transform

11.16. Segmentation

11.17. Segmentation by Region Growing and Region Splitting

11.18. Binary Morphology Operations

11.18.1. Thickening Operation

11.18.2. Dilation

11.18.3. Erosion

11.18.4. Skeletonization

11.18.5. Open Operation

11.18.6. Close Operation

11.18.7. Fill Operation

11.19. Gray Morphology Operations

11.19.1. Erosion

11.19.2. Dilation

11.20. Image Analysis

11.21. Object Recognition by Features

11.21.1. Basic Features Used for Object Identification

11.21.2. Moments

11.21.3. Template Matching

11.21.4. Discrete Fourier Descriptors

11.21.5. Computed Tomography (CT)

11.22. Depth Measurement with Vision Systems

11.22.1. Scene Analysis versus Mapping

11.22.2. Range Detection and Depth Analysis

11.22.3. Stereo Imaging

11.22.4. Scene Analysis with Shading and Sizes

11.23. Specialized Lighting

11.24. Image Data Compression

11.24.1. Intraframe Spatial Domain Techniques

11.24.2. Interframe Coding

11.24.3. Compression Techniques

11.25. Color Images

11.26. Heuristics

11.27. Applications of Vision Systems

11.28. Design Project

Summary

References

Problems

Chapter Twelve Fuzzy Logic Control

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Fuzzy Control: What is Needed

12.3. Crisp Values versus Fuzzy Values

12.4. Fuzzy Sets: Degrees of Truth and Membership

12.5. Fuzzification

12.6. Fuzzy Inference Rules

12.7. Defuzzification

12.7.1. Center of Gravity Method

12.7.2. Mamdani's Inference Method

12.8. Simulation of Fuzzy Logic Controller

12.9. Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Robotics

12.10. Design Project

Summary

References

Problems

Appendix A

A.1. Matrix Algebra and Notation: A Review

A.2. Calculation of an Angle from its Sine, Cosine, or Tangent

A.3. Solving equations with sine and cosine

Appendix B

Image Acquisition Systems