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Introduction to Wireless Communications Systems




Introduction to Wireless Communications Systems

Randy L. Haupt

ISBN: 978-1-119-41917-4 January 2020 Wiley-IEEE Press 500 Pages

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This book provides the fundamentals for understanding and designing wireless communications systems. The first half of the book provides an introduction to the basic concepts needed to understand wireless communications. The second half of the book has topics that apply the basic concepts learned from the first half. The book covers topics, such as Null filling, Microwave links, Leaky feeder cables, MATLAB emphasis, and direction finding, for example. The book also explains a critical component of the wireless system, the antenna. This book provides the material for a one semester course to introduce the reader to the fundamentals of wireless engineering a clear and concise manner with many examples.



Symbols and acronyms

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Historical Development of Wireless Communications

1.2 Information

1.3 Wired Communications

1.4 Spectrum

1.5 Communication System

Chapter 2 Signals and Bits

2.1 Analog Baseband Signals

2.2 Digital Baseband Signals

2.3 Source Coding

2.4 Line Coding

2.5 Bandwidth

2.6 Signal Level

2.7 Noise and Interference

2.8 Converting Analog to Digital

2.9 Channel Coding

2.10 Repetition

2.11 Parity bits

2.12 Redundancy Checking

2.13 Error Correcting Codes (ECC)

2.13.1 Block codes

2.13.2 Convolutional Codes

2.14 Interleaving

2.15 Eye Diagram

2.16 Intersymbol Interference

2.17 Raised Cosine Filter

2.18 Equalization

Chapter 3 Passband Signals

3.1 Carrier

3.2 Amplitude Modulated Signals

3.3 Frequency Modulated Signals

3.4 Phase Modulated Signals

3.5 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

3.6 Power Spectral Density of Digital Signals

3.7 BER of Digital Signals

3.8 Multiplexing in Time and Frequency

3.8.1 Frequency Division Multiplexing

3.8.2 Time Division Multiplexing

3.8.3 Multiple Access

3.9 Spread Spectrum

3.9.1 Interference

3.9.2 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

3.9.3 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

3.9.4 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Chapter 4 Antennas

4.1 Signal Properties that Influence Antenna Design

4.1.1 Impedance

4.1.2 Gain

4.1.3 Polarization

4.1.4 Bandwidth

4.2 Common Antennas

4.2.1 Point Sources

4.2.2 Wire Antennas

4.2.3 Aperture Antennas

4.2.4 Microstrip Antennas

4.3 Antenna Arrays

4.3.1 Element Placement Linear Array Arbitrary Array Layouts

4.4 Electronic Beam Steering

4.5 Element Pattern

4.6 Low Sidelobes

4.7 Moving a Null to Reject Interference

4.8 Null Filling

4.9 Multiple Beams

4.10 Antennas for Wireless Applications

4.10.1 Handset Antennas

4.10.2 Cellular Base Station Antennas

4.10.3 Reflector Antennas

4.10.4 Antennas for Microwave Links

4.11 Diversity

4.11.1 Spatial Diversity

4.11.2 Frequency Diversity

4.11.3 Polarization Diversity

4.11.4 Time Diversity

Chapter 5 Propagation in the Channel

5.1 Free Space Propagation

5.1 Reflection and Refraction

5.2 Multipath

5.3 Antennas Over the Earth

5.4 Earth Surface

5.5 Diffraction

5.5.1 Fresnel Diffraction

5.5.2 Diffraction from Multiple Obstacles

5.5.3 Geometrical Theory of Diffraction

5.6 Signal Fading

5.6.1 Small Scale Fading Models Rayleigh Fading

5.6.2 Rician Fading

5.6.3 Approximate Channel Models

5.6.4 Large Scale Fading

5.6.5 Channel Ray Tracing Models

5.7 Doppler Effects

5.8 Fade Margin

5.9 Atmospheric Propagation

Chapter 6 Satellite Communications

6.1 Early Development of Satellite Communications

6.2 Satellite Orbits

6.3 Satellite Link Budget

6.4 Bent Pipe Architecture

6.5 Multiple Beams

6.6 Stabilization

Chapter 7 RFID

7.1 Historical Development

7.2 RFID System Overview

7.3 Tag Data

7.4 Tag Classes

7.4.1 Passive Tags

7.4.2 Tags with Batteries or Supercapacitors Semi-Passive Tags Active Tags

7.5 Data Encoding and Modulation

7.6 Reader-Tag Communication

7.6.1 Near Field

7.6.2 Far Field Multiple Readers in an Interrogation Zone Backscatter Communication Chipless Tags

Chapter 8 Direction Finding

8.1 Direction Finding with a Main Beam

8.1.1 Array Output Power

8.1.2 Periodogram

8.1.3 Wullenweber Array

8.2 Direction Finding with a Null

8.3 Adcock Arrays

8.4 Eigenbeams

8.5 Direction Finding Algorithms

8.5.1 Capon's Minimum Variance

8.5.2 Pisarenko Harmonic Decomposition

8.5.3 MUSIC Algorithm

8.5.4 Root MUSIC

8.5.5 Maximum Entropy Method

8.5.6 ESPRIT

8.5.7 Estimating and Finding Sources

Chapter 9 Adaptive Arrays

9.1 The Need for Adaptive Nulling

9.2 Beam Cancellation

9.3 Optimum Weights

9.4 Least Mean Square (LMS) Algorithm

9.5 Sample Matrix Inversion Algorithm

9.6 Adaptive Algorithms Based on Power Minimization

9.6.1 Random Search Algorithms

9.6.2 Output Power Minimization Algorithms

9.6.3 Beam Switching

9.6.4 Reconfigurable Antennas

Chapter 10 MIMO

10.1 Types of MIMO

10.2 The Channel Matrix

10.3 Recovering the Transmitted Signal Using the Channel Matrix

10.3.1 CSIR and CSIT

10.3.2 Waterfilling Algorithm

10.3.3 CSIR and No CSIT

Chapter 11 Security

11.1 Wireless Networks

11.1.1 Addresses on a Network

11.1.2 Types of Wireless Local Area Networks

11.1.3 WLAN Examples

11.2 Threats

11.3 Securing Data

11.3.1 Cryptography

11.3.2 Secret Key Cryptography

11.3.3 Public Key Cryptography

11.3.4 Hashing

11.4 Defenses

Chapter 12 Biological Effects of RF Fields

12.1 RF Heating

12.2 RF Dosimetry

12.3 RF Radiation Hazards

12.3.1 Base Stations

12.3.2 Cell Phones

12.3.3 Medical Tests

12.4 Modeling RF Interactions with Humans

12.5 Harmful Effects of RF Radiation

Appendix I MATLAB Tips

Appendix II OSI Layers

Appendix III Cellular Generations

Appendix IV Bluetooth

Appendix V Wi-Fi

Appendix VI Software Defined Radios