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Introduction to the Human Body, 11th Edition

Gerard J. Tortora, Bryan H. Derrickson

ISBN: 978-1-119-39273-6 December 2017 640 Pages

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WileyPLUS improves outcomes with robust practice problems and feedback, fosters engagement with course content and educational videos, and gives students the flexibility to increase confidence as they learn and prepare outside of class.

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Introduction to the Human Body combines exceptional content and outstanding visual, auditory, and interactive presentations for a multimodal and comprehensive learning experience. This digital course gives students the ability to learn and explore anatomy and physiology both inside and outside of the classroom.

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1 Organization of the Human Body 1

1.1 Anatomy and Physiology: An Overview 1

1.2 Life Processes 6

1.3 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits 7

1.4 Aging and Homeostasis 10

1.5 Anatomical Terms 10

1.6 Body Cavities 15

Chapter Review 19

Critical Thinking Applications 20

Answers to Figure Questions 20

2 Introductory Chemistry 21

2.1 Introduction to Chemistry 21

2.2 Chemical Compounds and Life Processes 28

Chapter Review 38

Critical Thinking Applications 39

Answers to Figure Questions 39

3 Cells 40

3.1 A Generalized View of the Cell 40

3.2 The Plasma Membrane 41

3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 43

3.4 Cytoplasm 48

3.5 Nucleus 54

3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis 56

3.7 Somatic Cell Division 59

3.8 Cellular Diversity 61

3.9 Aging and Cells 61

Chapter Review 64

Critical Thinking Applications 66

Answers to Figure Questions 66

4 Tissues 67

4.1 Types of Tissues 67

4.2 Epithelial Tissue 68

4.3 Connective Tissue 78

4.4 Membranes 86

4.5 Muscular Tissue 88

4.6 Nervous Tissue 88

4.7 Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis 88

4.8 Aging and Tissues 89

Chapter Review 90

Critical Thinking Applications 92

Answers to Figure Questions 92

5 The Integumentary System 93

5.1 Skin 93

5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 97

5.3 Functions of the Skin 101

5.4 Skin Wound Healing 102

5.5 Aging and the Integumentary System 104

Chapter Review 109

Critical Thinking Applications 110

Answers to Figure Questions 110

6 The Skeletal System 111

6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System 111

6.2 Types of Bones 112

6.3 Structure of Bone 112

6.4 Bone Formation 116

6.5 Exercise and Bone Tissue 121

6.6 Divisions of the Skeletal System 122

6.7 Skull: An Overview 124

6.8 Unique Features of the Skull 130

6.9 Vertebral Column 132

6.10 Vertebral Regions 134

6.11 Thorax 137

6.12 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle 137

6.13 Upper Limb 139

6.14 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle 142

6.15 Lower Limb 144

6.16 Comparison of Female and Male Skeletons 148

6.17 Aging and the Skeletal System 149

Chapter Review 153

Critical Thinking Applications 155

Answers to Figure Questions 155

7 Joints 156

7.1 Classification of Joints 156

7.2 Fibrous Joints 157

7.3 Cartilaginous Joints 159

7.4 Synovial Joints 159

7.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 161

7.6 Types of Synovial Joints 164

7.7 The Knee Joint 166

7.8 Aging and Joints 169

Chapter Review 171

Critical Thinking Applications 172

Answers to Figure Questions 172

8 The Muscular System 173

8.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 173

8.2 Skeletal Muscle Tissue 174

8.3 Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle 178

8.4 Metabolism of Skeletal Muscle Tissue 183

8.5 Control of Muscle Tension 185

8.6 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 186

8.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 187

8.8 Smooth Muscle Tissue 187

8.9 Aging and Muscular Tissue 189

8.10 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement 189

8.11 Principal Skeletal Muscles 190

Chapter Review 218

Critical Thinking Applications 220

Answers to Figure Questions 221

9 Nervous Tissue 222

9.1 Overview of the Nervous System 222

9.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue 224

9.3 Action Potentials 229

9.4 Synaptic Transmission 233

Chapter Review 236

Critical Thinking Applications 237

Answers to Figure Questions 237

10 Central Nervous System, Spinal Nerves, and Cranial Nerves 238

10.1 Spinal Cord Structure 238

10.2 Spinal Nerves 242

10.3 Spinal Cord Functions 243

10.4 Brain 244

10.5 Cranial Nerves 259

10.6 Aging and the Nervous System 261

Chapter Review 263

Critical Thinking Applications 264

Answers to Figure Questions 264

11 Autonomic Nervous System 265

11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 265

11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System 267

11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System 271

Chapter Review 275

Critical Thinking Applications 275

Answers to Figure Questions 275

12 Somatic Senses and Special Senses 276

12.1 Overview of Sensations 276

12.2 Somatic Senses 278

12.3 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 281

12.4 Gustation: Sense of Taste 283

12.5 Vision 285

12.6 Hearing and Equilibrium 294

Chapter Review 302

Critical Thinking Applications 303

Answers to Figure Questions 304

13 The Endocrine System 305

13.1 Introduction 305

13.2 Hormone Action 307

13.3 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 309

13.4 Thyroid Gland 314

13.5 Parathyroid Glands 316

13.6 Pancreatic Islets 317

13.7 Adrenal Glands 322

13.8 Ovaries and Testes 325

13.9 Pineal Gland 325

13.10 Other Hormones 325

13.11 The Stress Response 326

13.12 Aging and the Endocrine System 327

Chapter Review 330

Critical Thinking Applications 332

Answers to Figure Questions 332

14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood 333

14.1 Functions of Blood 333

14.2 Components of Whole Blood 334

14.3 Hemostasis 342

14.4 Blood Groups and Blood Types 344

Chapter Review 348

Critical Thinking Applications 349

Answers to Figure Questions 349

15 The Cardiovascular System: Heart 350

15.1 Structure and Organization of the Heart 350

15.2 Blood Flow and Blood Supply of the Heart 357

15.3 Conduction System of the Heart 359

15.4 Electrocardiogram 360

15.5 The Cardiac Cycle 361

15.6 Cardiac Output 362

15.7 Exercise and the Heart 364

Chapter Review 367

Critical Thinking Applications 368

Answers to Figure Questions 368

16 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation 369

16.1 Blood Vessel Structure and Function 369

16.2 Blood Flow Through Blood Vessels 374

16.3 Circulatory Routes 377

16.4 Hepatic Portal and Fetal Circulations 396

16.5 Checking Circulation 399

16.6 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 400

Chapter Review 402

Critical Thinking Applications 404

Answers to Figure Questions 404

17 The Lymphatic System and Immunity 405

17.1 Lymphatic System 406

17.2 Innate Immunity 410

17.3 Adaptive Immunity 413

17.4 Aging and the Immune System 422

Chapter Review 427

Critical Thinking Applications 428

Answers to Figure Questions 428

18 The Respiratory System 429

18.1 Overview of the Respiratory System 429

18.2 Organs of the Respiratory System 430

18.3 Pulmonary Ventilation 438

18.4 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 441

18.5 Transport of Respiratory Gases 444

18.6 Control of Breathing 446

18.7 Exercise and the Respiratory System 449

18.8 Aging and the Respiratory System 449

Chapter Review 453

Critical Thinking Applications 454

Answers to Figure Questions 454

19 The Digestive System 455

19.1 Overview of the Digestive System 455

19.2 Layers of the GI Tract and the Omentum 457

19.3 Mouth 459

19.4 Pharynx and Esophagus 462

19.5 Stomach 464

19.6 Pancreas 467

19.7 Liver and Gallbladder 468

19.8 Small Intestine 470

19.9 Large Intestine 476

19.10 Phases of Digestion 479

19.11 Aging and the Digestive System 480

Chapter Review 484

Critical Thinking Applications 485

Answers to Figure Questions 486

20 Metabolism and Nutrition 487

20.1 Metabolism 487

20.2 Metabolism and Body Heat 493

20.3 Nutrients 495

Chapter Review 501

Critical Thinking Applications 502

Answers to Figure Questions 502

21 The Urinary System 503

21.1 Overview of the Urinary System 503

21.2 Structure of the Kidneys 505

21.3 Functions of the Nephron 509

21.4 Transportation, Storage, and Elimination of Urine 516

21.5 Aging and the Urinary System 518

Chapter Review 521

Critical Thinking Applications 522

Answers to Figure Questions 522

22 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance 523

22.1 Fluid Compartments and Fluid Balance 523

22.2 Electrolytes in Body Fluids 527

22.3 Acid–Base Balance 530

22.4 Aging and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance 532

Chapter Review 533

Critical Thinking Applications 534

Answers to Figure Questions 534

23 The Reproductive Systems 535

23.1 Male Reproductive System 535

23.2 Female Reproductive System 544

23.3 The Female Reproductive Cycle 551

23.4 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 554

23.5 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 557

Chapter Review 562

Critical Thinking Applications 564

Answers to Figure Questions 564

24 Development and Inheritance 565

24.1 Embryonic Period 565

24.2 Fetal Period 574

24.3 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy 575

24.4 Exercise and Pregnancy 577

24.5 Labor and Delivery 577

24.6 Lactation 578

24.7 Inheritance 579                                    

Chapter Review 584

Critical Thinking Applications 585

Answers to Figure Questions 585

Expanded and updated physiology coverage across the entire course.
New Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images added to multiple sections.
Significant updates to the art in the Cardiovascular System sections.
WileyPLUS Media Updates include:  5 new 3-D Physiology Animations (now 15 total); new interactive graphics, which enhance viewer experience. Multi-part figures are now displayed as slideshows, which eliminates scrolling. Refreshed ORION diagnostics based on actual student usage; Human and Animal Dissection Videos are now available in the Key Resource Ribbon; Transcripts have been added for Hear This Illustration audio lectures.

Interactive Graphics: Make content visually accessible to students as they engage with print content. They are in place for multi-part figures, including multi-parts that zoom in on a given structure.
Key Resources Ribbon: Puts the course’s Anatomy and Physiology media at student and faculty’s fingertips.
Anatomy Resources include: Concept Lectures, Real Anatomy Cadaver Dissection, Muscles in Motion, Anatomy Drill and Practice; and Cat, Pig, Rat and Human dissection videos.
- Physiology Resources include: 3-D Physiology animations, the entire Interactions program (of overviews, animations, exercises & more) as well as PowerPhys – Physiological Lab Simulation software.