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Invasion Ecology, 2nd Edition



Invasion Ecology, 2nd Edition

Julie L. Lockwood, Martha F. Hoopes, Michael P. Marchetti

ISBN: 978-1-118-57082-1 April 2013 Wiley-Blackwell 456 Pages

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This new edition of Invasion Ecology provides a comprehensive and updated introduction to all aspects of biological invasion by non-native species. Highlighting important research findings associated with each stage of invasion, the book provides an overview of the invasion process from transportation patterns and causes of establishment success to ecological impacts, invader management, and post-invasion evolution. The authors have produced new chapters on predicting and preventing invasion, managing and eradicating invasive species, and invasion dynamics in a changing climate.

Modern global trade and travel have led to unprecedented movement of non-native species by humans with unforeseen, interesting, and occasionally devastating consequences. Increasing recognition of the problems associated with invasion has led to a rapid growth in research into the dynamics of non-native species and their adverse effects on native biota and human economies. This book provides a synthesis of this fast growing field of research and is an essential text for undergraduate and graduate students in ecology and conservation management.

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Preface ix

1 An Introduction to Invasion Ecology 1

What are invaders and why do we care about them? 2

A brief history of invasion ecology 5

The wicked terminological web we weave 7

The invasion process 13

Summary 18

2 Transport Vectors and Pathways 24

What’s the difference between a vector and a pathway? 25

Does human-mediated dispersal differ from natural dispersal? 26

Transport vectors 29

Which species are transported via what vector group? 41

Dynamics of transport pathways 44

Summary 48

3 Trends in Numbers of Invaders 50

Invasion rates through time 51

Geographic patterns in numbers of invaders 63

Summary 72

4 Propagules 74

What are propagules? 75

Donor region and propagule pressure 75

Biological mechanisms 79

Empirical evidence 85

The hidden influence of propagule pressure 92

Summary 97

5 Disturbance 99

History and definition of disturbance 100

Disturbance facilitates invasion? 104

Restoration and disturbance 112

Agriculture and urbanization as disturbance 115

Biotic disturbance 118

Summary 127

6 Establishment Success: The Influence of Biotic Interactions 129

Conceptual issues 130

Resistance to invasion 131

Facilitation of establishment 146

Summary 155

7 Modeling the Geographical Spread of Invasive Species 157

What exactly is geographical spread? 158

Why do we want to model geographical spread? 162

The reaction–diffusion model 163

Long-distance dispersal 170

Directional dispersal 173

Stratified dispersal 176

Other forms of heterogeneity 182

Summary 187

8 Ecological Processes and the Spread of Non-native Species 189

Population growth 190

Dispersal 194

Biotic interactions 202

The role of heterogeneity 207

Lag times 210

Boom and bust 215

Summary 216

9 Ecological Impacts of Invasive Species 218

Genetic impacts 219

Individual impacts 222

Population impacts 228

Community impacts 233

Ecosystem impacts 240

Landscape, regional, and global impacts 242

Summary 244

10 Impact Synthesis 246

Perception and recognition of impact 247

Integrating perception with ecological determinants of impact 255

A theory of impact? 258

Finding common currencies 263

A cross-stage impact formula 273

Summary 275

11 Evolution of Invaders 277

Founding process 279

Losses and gains in genetic variability via transport mechanisms 279

Genetics and post-release success 288

Local adaptation and life-history evolution 291

Evolution of native species in response to non-natives 296

Summary 298

12 Predicting and Preventing Invasion 299

Explanation versus risk assessment 301

Inherent limitations to prediction 301

Risk analysis 303

Screening risky species 304

Screening risky transportation vectors 317

Summary 333

13 Eradication and Control of Invaders 335

Cause for optimism? 336

Rapid response 337

Lazarus effect 343

Long-term control 346

Sisyphus effect 350

Summary 354

14 Global Climate Change and Invasive Species 356

Global climate change 101 357

Non-native species and global climate change 364

Transport 365

Establishment 368

Spread 373

Impact 379

Human responses 387

Summary 391

References 393

Index 428

A colour plate section falls between pages 372 and 373

“Summing Up: Highly recommended.  Lower-division undergraduates through graduate students, researchers/faculty, land managers, policy makers, and interested general readers.”  (Choice, 1 February 2014)

“Young scientists starting out in this field who read this book will not only gain an appreciation of our current state of knowledge, but, perhaps more importantly, will also learn where our knowledge is limited and what research questions are prime for tackling.”  (Biological Conservation, 1 January 2014)

“This is certainly by far still the best introduction to this important topic around, and those that bought the first edition should snap this one up also for the increased topicality. The work is also available in various electronic formats, which should further encourage its take-up by the current student generation.”  (Biodivers Conserv, 1 September 2013)

“Overall, I can fully recommend this book. As the 1st edition, this 2nd edition will be valuable for students, researchers, managers, and anybody else interested in bio- logical invasions. It reads very well and is technically well done; I spotted only few typos. The companion website ( with down- loadable versions of the book’s figures and tables is also very useful.”  (Basic and Applied Ecology, 1 October 2013)