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Iron Oxides: From Nature to Applications

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Iron Oxides: From Nature to Applications

Damien Faivre, Richard B. Frankel (Foreword by)

ISBN: 978-3-527-33882-5 August 2016 632 Pages

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Description

Compiling all the information available on the topic, this ready reference covers all important aspects of iron oxides.
Following a preliminary overview chapter discussing iron oxide minerals along with their unique structures and properties, the text goes on to deal with the formation and transformation of iron oxides, covering geological, synthetic, and biological formation, as well as various physicochemical aspects. Subsequent chapters are devoted to characterization techniques, with a special focus on X-ray-based methods, magnetic measurements, and electron microscopy alongside such traditional methods as IR/Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The final section mainly concerns exciting new applications of magnetic iron oxides, for example in medicine as microswimmers or as water filtration systems, while more conventional uses as pigments or in biology for magnetoreception illustrate the full potential.
A must-read for anyone working in the field.

List of Contributors XVII

Foreword XXV

Preface XXVII

1 Introduction 1
Damien Faivre

1.1 Iron Oxides: From Nature to Applications 1

1.2 A Very Brief Overview of the Iron Oxides and How They Found Names 3

References 5

Part I Formation, Transformation 7

2 Geological Occurrences and Relevance of Iron Oxides 9
France Lagroix, Subir K. Banerjee, and Mike J. Jackson

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Elemental Iron: From the Universe to the Earth 9

2.3 Residency of Elemental Iron on Earth 10

2.4 Mineral Forms of Iron Oxides 11

2.5 Occurrence and Geological Relevance of Iron Oxides 13

2.6 Iron Oxides in Continental Dust Deposits 19

2.7 Concluding Remarks 23

Acknowledgments 23

References 23

3 Reductive Dissolution and Reactivity of Ferric (Hydr)oxides: New Insights and Implications for Environmental Redox Processes 31
Stefan Peiffer and Moli Wan

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 The Classical Perspective on Reductive Dissolution 32

3.3 Electron Transfer at Ferric (Hydr)oxides Surfaces: The Role of Fe(II) 33

3.4 Energetics at the Ferric (Hydr)oxide Interface 35

3.5 Rate Control: Surface versus Structural Properties 39

3.6 Interaction between Dissolved Sulfide and Ferric Hydroxides 42

3.7 Implications 47

References 48

4 Formation and Transformation of Iron-Bearing Minerals by Iron(II)-Oxidizing and Iron(III)-Reducing Bacteria 53
Jennyfer Miot and Marjorie Etique

4.1 Introduction 53

4.2 Biomineralization of Iron through Microbial Fe(II) Oxidation 54

4.3 Iron(III) Minerals: Electron Acceptors for Iron-Reducing Bacteria 60

4.4 Specific Properties of Iron Biominerals 64

4.5 Microbial Fe Redox Cycling: Past, Present, and Future 72

4.6 Conclusion 77

References 78

5 Controlled Biomineralization of Magnetite in Bacteria 99
Elodie C.T. Descamps, Jean-Baptiste Abbé, David Pignol, and Christopher T. Lefèvre

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Magnetotactic Bacteria 100

5.3 Organization and Role of Magnetosomes 102

5.4 Biomineralization of Magnetosomes 104

5.5 Mineral Phase of Magnetosomes 108

Acknowledgments 111

References 111

6 Ferritin Iron Mineralization and Storage: From Structure to Function 117
Noam Aronovitz, Michal Neeman, and Raz Zarivach

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 Basic Structure of Ferritins 118

6.3 Iron Storage and Mineralization 123

6.4 NMR and MRI Studies of the Ferritin Iron Core 126

6.5 Magnetoferritin 127

6.6 Ferritin as a Biotechnological Tool 131

6.7 Protocol Annexes 133

References 137

7 Iron Oxides in the Human Brain 143
Joanna F. Collingwood and Neil D. Telling

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 Iron Oxides Observed in the Human Brain 146

7.3 Properties of Iron Oxides in the Brain 150

7.4 Stored and Sequestered Iron Oxide in the Human Brain 155

7.5 Methods to Detect Iron Oxides in the Brain 160

7.6 Tools and Treatments: Manipulating Iron Oxides in the Brain 163

7.7 Concluding Remarks 166

Acknowledgments 166

References 166

8 The Chiton Radula: A Model System for Versatile Use of Iron Oxides 177
Derk Joester and Lesley R. Brooker

8.1 Functional Anatomy of the Mollusk Radula 177

8.2 Development of the Radula: Organic Matrix 180

8.3 The Discovery of Biominerals in the Radula 180

8.4 The Microarchitecture of Chiton Radula Teeth 181

8.5 Development of the Chiton Radula: Stages of Biomineralization 183

8.6 Development of the Radula: Biological Control 185

8.7 Role of Acidic Macromolecules in the Insoluble Organic Matrix 186

8.8 Soluble Organic Matrix Composition 186

8.9 Selective Deposition of Ferrihydrite in Stage II 187

8.10 Conversion of Ferrihydrite to Magnetite in Stage III 190

8.11 Phase Transformations in Stage IV 192

8.12 Final Functional Architecture 194

8.13 Concluding Remarks 197

References 198

9 Mineralization of Goethite in Limpet Radular Teeth 207
Tina Ukmar-Godec

9.1 Introduction 207

9.2 Structure, Properties, and Function of the Limpet Radula 207

9.3 Goethite Produced in the Laboratory 210

9.4 Goethite Produced in Limpets 213

9.5 Conclusion 221

References 222

10 Synthetic Formation of Iron Oxides 225
Corinne Chaneac, Anne Duchateau, and Ali Abou-Hassan

10.1 Introduction 225

10.2 Iron Oxide and Oxyhydroxide from Aqueous Ferric Solution 226

10.3 Iron Oxide and Oxyhydroxide from Aqueous Ferrous Solution 231

10.4 Iron Oxide Synthesis Using Microfluidic Process 233

References 240

11 Oriented Attachment and Nonclassical Formation in Iron Oxides 243
Jennifer A. Soltis and R. Lee Penn

11.1 Introduction 243

11.2 OA in Iron Oxides in the Literature 245

11.3 OA and Phase Transformation 249

11.4 Detection and Characterization of Growth by OA 249

11.5 Kinetics of Growth by OA 253

11.6 Thermodynamics 257

11.7 Morphology and Surface Chemistry 258

11.8 Forces Governing Assembly 259

11.9 Future Work 260

References 261

12 Thermodynamics of Iron Oxides and Oxyhydroxides in Different Environments 269
Haibo Guo and Amanda S. Barnard

12.1 Introduction 269

12.2 Magnetic Transformations 270

12.3 Polymorphic Transformations 274

12.4 Summary 288

References 289

Part II Characterization Techniques 293

13 Introduction to Standard Spectroscopic Methods: XRD, IR/Raman, and Mössbauer 295
Fernando Vereda

13.1 Introduction 295

13.2 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) 297

13.3 Vibrational Spectroscopy 302

13.4 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 311

Acknowledgments 319

References 319

14 TEM and Associated Techniques 325
Tanya Prozorov

Common Abbreviations 325

14.1 Introduction 326

14.2 Nanoscale Analysis of Iron Oxides 327

14.3 Electron Holography 331

14.4 The Near In Situ Approach 335

14.5 In Situ Analysis with a Liquid Cell 336

Acknowledgment 338

References 339

15 Magnetic Measurements and Characterization 347
Ann M. Hirt

15.1 Introduction 347

15.2 Summary of Magnetic Properties of Iron Oxides and Iron Hydroxides 348

15.3 Induced Magnetization 349

15.4 Remanent Magnetization 355

15.5 Usage of Magnetic Properties 357

15.6 Summary 366

References 367

16 Total X-Ray Scattering and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering for Determining the Structures, Sizes, Shapes, and Aggregation Extents of Iron (Hydr)oxide Nanoparticles 371
Young-Shin Jun and Byeongdu Lee

16.1 Introduction 371

16.2 Determination of Particle Structures: Total X-Ray Scattering with PDF Analysis 373

16.3 Determination of Particle Sizes, Shapes, and Aggregation Extents: SAXS and GISAXS 378

16.4 Outlook 391

Acknowledgments 392

References 392

17 X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy in Fe Oxides and Oxyhydroxides 397
M. Luisa Fdez-Gubieda, Ana García-Prieto, Javier Alonso, and Carlo Meneghini

17.1 Brief Introduction to XAFS 398

17.2 XANES spectroscopy 401

17.3 EXAFS Spectroscopy 406

17.4 Conclusion and Perspectives 415

References 416

Part III Applications 423

18 Medical Applications of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles 425
Amanda K. Andriola Silva, Ana Espinosa, Jelena Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Claire Wilhelm, and Florence Gazeau

18.1 Introduction 425

18.2 IONPs for Imaging 426

18.3 Magnetic Drug Targeting 433

18.4 IONPs and Tissue Engineering 442

18.5 Activation of IONPs with Time-Dependent Magnetic Fields 446

18.6 Life Cycle of IONPs 456

18.7 Conclusion 460

References 460

19 Iron Nanoparticles for Water Treatment: Is the Future Free or Fixed? 473
Sarah J. Tesh and Thomas B. Scott

19.1 Introduction 473

19.2 Why Iron? 475

19.3 INPs: A Versatile Material for Water Treatment 477

19.4 Operational Drivers for Water Treatment 483

19.5 Static Nanocomposites 495

19.6 What Is Holding Back Static Nanocomposites? 507

19.7 Conclusion 509

References 510

20 Actuation of Iron Oxide-Based Nanostructures by External Magnetic Fields 523
Peter Vach

20.1 Introduction 523

20.2 Nanomachines 525

20.3 Guided Self-Assembly 530

20.4 Conclusion 536

References 536

21 Iron Oxide-Based Pigments and Their Use in History 545
Marco Nicola, Chiara Mastrippolito, and Admir Masic

21.1 Introduction 545

21.2 Chemical Composition and Properties of Iron Oxide-Based Pigments 545

21.3 Use of Iron Oxide-Based Pigments in History 550

21.4 Case Studies 559

References 563

22 Magnetoreception and Magnetotaxis 567
Mathieu A. Bennet and Stephan H. K. Eder

22.1 Magnetoreception 567

22.2 Magnetotaxis 576

Conclusions 586

References 586

Index 591