Multiculturalism is controversial in the liberal state and has frequently been declared dead, even in countries that have never had a policy under that name. This authoritative book reviews the different meanings multiculturalism has acquired across theories, countries, and domains to evaluate the extent of its demise and the ways in which it lives on.
Christian Joppke intriguingly argues that, beyond the ebb and flow of policy, liberal constitutionalism itself bears out a multiculturalism of the individual that is not only alive but necessary in a liberal society. Through a provocative comparison of gay rights in the United States and the accommodation of Islam in Europe, he shows that liberal constitutionalism constrains majority power, requiring the state to be neutral about peoples values and ethical commitment. It cannot but give rise to multiple ways of life or cultures, as people are endowed with the freedom to embrace them. Accordingly, impulses toward multiculturalism persist, despite its political crisis, but with a new accent on the individual, rather than group, as the unit of integration.
Tightly argued and clearly written, this book provides a judicious assessment of multiculturalism in the West and will be of interest to a broad readership across the social sciences and legal studies.
Introduction: What is Dead and What is Alive
Chapter 1: Multiculturalism: Not One but Many Things
Chapter 2: Retreat of Multiculturalism and Civic Integration
Chapter 3: Why Multiculturalism is Necessary: Liberal Law and the Empowerment of Gays and Muslims
Chapter 4: Multiculturalism v. Antidiscrimination
Conclusion: What Remains: A Multiculturalism of the Individual
"With characteristic verve and acumen, Joppke shows, in an illuminating comparison of gay rights in the United States and Muslim accommodation in Europe, that liberal constitutional states protect different (sexual or religious) preferences without having to acknowledge rights of groups. A crucial contribution to one of the most important debates of our times."
—Andreas Wimmer, Columbia University
"When every politician pours scorn on multiculturalism, you can trust Christian Joppke, the most interesting voice in migration and citizenship studies, who never pulled a punch against group rights, to revive the concept. Did he change his mind? Spoiler: not really. But the result – as always – is endlessly stimulating."
—Per Mouritsen, Aarhus University